ThinkCERCA
 forming arguments
 reading comprehension
 text analysis
 using supporting evidence
 biology
 chemistry
 energy
 physics
 cultural understanding
 events
 history
 conveying messages effectively
 presenting
 analyzing evidence
 making conclusions
 thinking critically
Pros
Highinterest texts can spark classroom discussions, and the criticalreading framework has the potential to foster deep, Common Corealigned learning.Cons
Further tools for collaboration and differentiation  such as variable reading levels for each text  would empower as well as create more opportunities for meaningful learning.Bottom Line
A solid resource for CCSSaligned criticalreading and writing instruction serves as a potential springboard for inclass discussions, group work, and extension activities.Clear and easy to navigate, simple graphics highlight steps for setup. Chat and email assistance offer support. The FAQ section is grouped by popular topic.
Students will like highinterest texts on discrimination, school uniforms, or renewable energy. The critical reading formula is spoton, but without more choice and variety in the response format, students' enthusiasm may wane.
Standardsaligned, crossdisciplinary texts support close reading practice while inviting debate and discussion. Application and extension of students' reading will depend on teachers' initiative to go beyond the screen.
Site support is plentiful for teachers and students. Texts have embedded definitions and images to assist comprehension. More versatility to differentiate reading levels and text complexity would help support learners of varying abilities.
It's tempting to see ThinkCERCA as a Common Core silver bullet  especially if you're using the full subscription  because it's such a thorough resource. Teachers can arrange for wholeclass access to the site during the school day or, if possible, assign students to read specific articles as part of a flipped classroom. In either scenario, teachers can pull individual students to meet with while the rest of the classroom attends to their assigned work.
Either version of the site's offerings supports a weekly routine of assessing students' reading. However, the program might be best used in conjunction with your own lessons and extensions to help transfer learning into the offscreen realm as well. ThinkCERCA's articles serve as good support for thematic units in language arts, social studies, math, or science. The articles could serve as springboards for excellent wholeclass debates or smallgroup discussions. Additionally, if using the full subscription, students could print their essays and score their peers' work, meeting in small groups to help each other and encourage better writing.
Read more Read lessThinkCERCA is an online program designed to support individualized instruction in critical thinking for students in grades 412. The CERCA acronym (Claims, Evidence, Reasoning, Counterarguments, Audience) represents the site's structured approach to teaching critical thinking and argumentation. While reading one of the program's numerous text selections, students can make claims about what they're reading. They're then prompted to support these claims with evidence from the text, explain their reasoning, and address possible counterarguments. Throughout, students are prompted to use audienceappropriate language as they write.
The basic, free version offers teachers texts (leveled by grade band), CCSSaligned close reading assessments, and student and class data, as well as support and planning ideas. ThinkCERCA's full, paid version also includes readymade lessons, a schoolwide writing and assessment platform, districtwide data reporting, college and career portfolio storage, and the aforementioned close reading and argumentation lessons, which are really the heart of the program. These ThinkCERCA lesson sets each connect a text with some performance of understanding, whether it's creating a summary or completing a dynamic graphic organizer to form an argument. From there, students can draft an essay that teachers can score online.
Read more Read lessThinkCERCA's free program can help teachers integrate CCSSaligned, crossdisciplinary reading and writing instruction into their classes. And the program's selection of highinterest texts span a range of reading abilities, which is an added benefit. Without a tool like this, gathering, curating, and organizing this many highinterest nonfiction readings would prove challenging  if not impossible  for most busy teachers. ThinkCERCA also includes adjoining assessments with each text for individual, smallgroup, and wholeclass assessment.
The paid option takes learning further, getting at the heart of the program's approach to reading and writing instruction. The handy argumentorganizer tool walks students through the CERCA format. The reading and response windows appear side by side in a logical, dynamic, and userfriendly layout. However, more options for differentiation  such as variable complexity within each text  would be a big benefit. ThinkCERCA fills a critical void in the world of online reading and writing instruction, and there's a lot of potential here for more. For instance, teachers may want to support collaborative learning among students of varying abilities. A builtin tool to encourage online collaboration utilizing a "more capable peer" approach could help facilitate this, and such a tool would be a solid addition. As it stands, ThinkCERCA provides teachers and students with a solid, if somewhat formulaic, approach to critical reading and argumentative writing.
Read more Read lessKey Standards Supported
Reading Informational  
RI.6: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  
RI.6.8  Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 
Key Ideas and Details  
RI.6.1  Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 
RI.6.2  Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 
RI.910: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  
RI.910.8  Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. 
Key Ideas and Details  
RI.910.1  Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 
RI.910.2  Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 
RI.1112: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  
RI.1112.8  Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses). 
Key Ideas and Details  
RI.1112.1  Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. 
RI.1112.2  Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. 
Functions  
8.F: Define, Evaluate, And Compare Functions.  
8.F.1  Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1 
8.F.2  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 
8.F.3  Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. 
Use Functions To Model Relationships Between Quantities.  
8.F.4  Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 
8.F.5  Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. 
Geometric Measurement And Dimension  
HSG.GMD: Explain Volume Formulas And Use Them To Solve Problems  
HSG.GMD.1  Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and informal limit arguments. 
HSG.GMD.2  (+) Give an informal argument using Cavalieri’s principle for the formulas for the volume of a sphere and other solid figures. 
HSG.GMD.3  Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.★ 
Visualize Relationships Between TwoDimensional And Three Dimensional Objects  
HSG.GMD.4  Identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of three dimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects. 
Interpreting Categorical And Quantitative Data  
HSS.ID: Summarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On A Single Count Or Measurement Variable  
HSS.ID.1  Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). 
HSS.ID.2  Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. 
HSS.ID.3  Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). 
HSS.ID.4  Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. 
Summarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On Two Categorical And Quantitative Variables  
HSS.ID.5  Summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data. 
HSS.ID.6  Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. 
HSS.ID.6.a  Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models. 
HSS.ID.6.b  Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals. 
HSS.ID.6.c  Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. 
Interpret Linear Models  
HSS.ID.7  Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. 
HSS.ID.8  Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit. 
HSS.ID.9  Distinguish between correlation and causation. 
Interpreting Functions  
HSF.IF: Understand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation  
HSF.IF.1  Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). 
HSF.IF.2  Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. 
HSF.IF.3  Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n1) for n ≥ 1. 
Interpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context  
HSF.IF.4  For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.★ 
HSF.IF.5  Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.★ 
HSF.IF.6  Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.★ 
Analyze Functions Using Different Representations  
HSF.IF.7  Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.★ 
HSF.IF.7.a  Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. 
HSF.IF.7.b  Graph square root, cube root, and piecewisedefined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. 
HSF.IF.7.c  Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. 
HSF.IF.7.d  (+) Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. 
HSF.IF.7.e  Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude. 
HSF.IF.8  Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. 
HSF.IF.8.a  Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context. 
HSF.IF.8.b  Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay. 
HSF.IF.9  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. 
Measurement And Data  
K.MD: Describe And Compare Measurable Attributes.  
K.MD.1  Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object. 
K.MD.2  Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter. 
Classify Objects And Count The Number Of Objects In Each Category.  
K.MD.3  Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.3 
1.MD: Measure Lengths Indirectly And By Iterating Length Units.  
1.MD.1  Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. 
1.MD.2  Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. 
Tell And Write Time.  
1.MD.3  Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
1.MD.4  Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. 
2.MD: Represent And Interpret Data.  
2.MD.10  Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with singleunit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put together, takeapart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph. 
2.MD.9  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in wholenumber units. 
Measure And Estimate Lengths In Standard Units.  
2.MD.1  Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. 
2.MD.2  Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. 
2.MD.3  Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. 
2.MD.4  Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. 
Relate Addition And Subtraction To Length.  
2.MD.5  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
2.MD.6  Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., and represent wholenumber sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram. 
Work With Time And Money.  
2.MD.7  Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. 
2.MD.8  Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? 
3.MD: Represent And Interpret Data.  
3.MD.3  Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one and twostep “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. 
3.MD.4  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters. 
Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Estimation Of Intervals Of Time, Liquid Volumes, And Masses Of Objects.  
3.MD.1  Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. 
3.MD.2  Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).6 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve onestep word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.7 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Area And Relate Area To Multiplication And To Addition.  
3.MD.5  Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement. 
3.MD.5.a  A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area. 
3.MD.5.b  A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units. 
3.MD.6  Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). 
3.MD.7  Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. 
3.MD.7.a  Find the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. 
3.MD.7.b  Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.c  Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.d  Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Geometric Measurement: Recognize Perimeter As An Attribute Of Plane Figures And Distinguish Between Linear And Area Measures.  
3.MD.8  Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. 
4.MD: Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Conversion Of Measurements From A Larger Unit To A Smaller Unit.  
4.MD.1  Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... 
4.MD.2  Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. 
4.MD.3  Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
4.MD.4  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Angle And Measure Angles.  
4.MD.5  Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: 
4.MD.5.a  An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “onedegree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. 
4.MD.5.b  An angle that turns through n onedegree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. 
4.MD.6  Measure angles in wholenumber degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. 
4.MD.7  Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. 
5.MD: Convert Like Measurement Units Within A Given Measurement System.  
5.MD.1  Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
5.MD.2  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Volume And Relate Volume To Multiplication And To Addition.  
5.MD.3  Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement. 
5.MD.3.a  A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume. 
5.MD.3.b  A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units. 
5.MD.4  Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units. 
5.MD.5  Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. 
5.MD.5.a  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold wholenumber products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. 
5.MD.5.b  Apply the formulas V=l×w×handV=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. 
5.MD.5.c  Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two nonoverlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Operations And Algebraic Thinking  
K.OA: Understand Addition As Putting Together And Adding To, And Under Stand Subtraction As Taking Apart And Taking From.  
K.OA.1  Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations. 
K.OA.2  Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. 
K.OA.3  Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). 
K.OA.4  For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation. 
K.OA.5  Fluently add and subtract within 5. 
1.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
1.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2 
1.OA.2  Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
Understand And Apply Properties Of Operations And The Relationship Between Addition And Subtraction.  
1.OA.3  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.3 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.) 
1.OA.4  Understand subtraction as an unknownaddend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. 
Add And Subtract Within 20.  
1.OA.5  Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). 
1.OA.6  Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). 
Work With Addition And Subtraction Equations.  
1.OA.7  Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2. 
1.OA.8  Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = � – 3, 6 + 6 = �. 
2.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
2.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
Add And Subtract Within 20.  
2.OA.2  Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.2 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers. 
Work With Equal Groups Of Objects To Gain Foundations For Multiplication.  
2.OA.3  Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. 
2.OA.4  Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends. 
3.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Multiplication And Division.  
3.OA.1  Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7. 
3.OA.2  Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. 
3.OA.3  Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
3.OA.4  Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = � ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?. 
Understand Properties Of Multiplication And The Relationship Between Multiplication And Division.  
3.OA.5  Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) 
3.OA.6  Understand division as an unknownfactor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. 
Multiply And Divide Within 100.  
3.OA.7  Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two onedigit numbers. 
Solve Problems Involving The Four Operations, And Identify And Explain Patterns In Arithmetic.  
3.OA.8  Solve twostep word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.3 
3.OA.9  Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. 
4.OA: Use The Four Operations With Whole Numbers To Solve Problems.  
4.OA.1  Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. 
4.OA.2  Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 
4.OA.3  Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having wholenumber answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. 
Gain Familiarity With Factors And Multiples.  
4.OA.4  Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given onedigit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite. 
Generate And Analyze Patterns.  
4.OA.5  Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. 
5.OA: Write And Interpret Numerical Expressions.  
5.OA.1  Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. 
5.OA.2  Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. 
Analyze Patterns And Relationships.  
5.OA.3  Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. 
Statistics And Probability  
6.SP: Develop Understanding Of Statistical Variability.  
6.SP.1  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 
6.SP.2  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 
6.SP.3  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. 
Summarize And Describe Distributions.  
6.SP.4  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. 
6.SP.5  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: 
6.SP.5.a  Reporting the number of observations. 
6.SP.5.b  Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. 
6.SP.5.c  Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. 
6.SP.5.d  Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. 
7.SP: Use Random Sampling To Draw Inferences About A Population.  
7.SP.1  Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 
7.SP.2  Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. 
Draw Informal Comparative Inferences About Two Populations.  
7.SP.3  Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. 
7.SP.4  Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. 
Investigate Chance Processes And Develop, Use, And Evaluate Probability Models.  
7.SP.5  Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. 
7.SP.6  Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its longrun relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 
7.SP.7  Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. 
7.SP.7.a  Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. 
7.SP.7.b  Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? 
7.SP.8  Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. 
7.SP.8.a  Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. 
7.SP.8.b  Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. 
7.SP.8.c  Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? 
8.SP: Investigate Patterns Of Association In Bivariate Data.  
8.SP.1  Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 
8.SP.2  Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 
8.SP.3  Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 
8.SP.4  Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a twoway table. Construct and interpret a twoway table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? 
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