Pros: Stylish interactives will keep kids' attention and offer an educational takeaway aligned to Common Core standards.
Cons: The amount of additional teaching materials and information varies per topic.
Bottom Line: Games and activities can help reinforce key math, language, and science concepts for elementary schoolers.
Teachers can use the Standards Map to determine which games would work best in conjunction with a particular unit or lesson. The map offers a visual, easy way to sort through the site's activities and includes information on how each relates to Common Core standards. Many activities include additional teaching materials, such as worksheets, activity suggestions, and tests. Other tools help teachers monitor progress. Teachers can compare individual student performance to the overall class or see what activities a student has completed with the SuccessTracker. They can view assignments by date, look at usage statistics for the school, and email themselves reports on the class that are grouped by student and activity.
Teachers can also set up an unlimited number of MyCity sections, which let them select activities that relate to specific learning objectives, add comments, and store the activities in one area for students to easily access. The Set Homework option lets teachers send individual assignments.
Continue reading Show lessEducationCity includes activities and teaching resources that tie into preK through sixthgrade Common Core standards, Next Generation Science standards, and other specific standards. Students can learn about a wide variety of math (in English and Spanish), language, science, and computerscience topics. These topics range from prekindergarten counting, letter recognition, and positive behavior lessons to algebraic concepts, Greek and Latin word origins, and writing styles for sixthgraders. Several grade levels also include instruction for Englishlanguage learners.
Some items are marked as potential whiteboard activities teachers can present in class; students can also play activities on their own in a school computer lab or at home. Free topical resources are released monthly to help teachers celebrate historical dates and holidays. These include such items as lesson plans, activities, posters, and reference sheets.
EducationCity's activities illustrate lessons in cute, clever ways, featuring highquality graphics and characters that help personalize the experience. Activities start with a brief lesson on a topic, such as capitalization, then let students test out their new skill. They can often follow along as a narrator reads instructions, and students get a second chance to correct mistakes. Their scores can be logged in the system for future reference.
The program really has few drawbacks. The amount of additional teaching materials and information varies per game; in some, educators can access lesson suggestions, worksheets, and other followup activity ideas. Other games are primarily standalone activities. Likewise, some sections have more activities than others. However, the site's helpful Standards Map provides a good overview of the learning principles each activity can reinforce, so educators can make the most of EducationCity's resources.
Overall Rating
Engagement
Educational activities are fun, but learning is always the central purpose. Narrators and characters help make the experience feel personal. Interactives walk kids through each step and offer hints. PlayLive lets kids play against other students.
Pedagogy
Most activities feature a strong educational focus. Students learn through interactives, games, criticalthinking questions, whiteboard activities, and more. Teachers can track their progress and pick activities for students or groups.
Support
Many activities include worksheets and additional lesson ideas. Teachers can choose activities based on how they relate to learning goals and standards. Inproduct hints, noted by purple question marks, help users learn more about each feature.
Key Standards Supported
Measurement And Data
 K.MD.1
Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.
 K.MD.2
Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
 K.MD.3
Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.3
 1.MD.3
Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks.
 2.MD.8
Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?
 3.MD.1
Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
Number And Operations In Base Ten
 K.NBT.1
Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
 1.NBT.1
Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.
 1.NBT.2
Understand that the two digits of a twodigit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
 1.NBT.2.a
10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.” b.
 1.NBT.2.b
The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
 1.NBT.2.c
The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).
 1.NBT.3
Compare two twodigit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.
 1.NBT.4
Add within 100, including adding a twodigit number and a onedigit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding twodigit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.
 1.NBT.5
Given a twodigit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.
 1.NBT.6
Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 1090 from multiples of 10 in the range 1090 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.
 2.NBT.1.a
100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.”
 2.NBT.2
Count within 1000; skipcount by 5s, 10s, and 100s.
 2.NBT.6
Add up to four twodigit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
 3.NBT.1
Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.
 3.NBT.2
Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.
 3.NBT.3
Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
 4.NBT.1
Recognize that in a multidigit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.
 4.NBT.2
Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
 4.NBT.3
Use place value understanding to round multidigit whole numbers to any place.
 4.NBT.4
Fluently add and subtract multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
 4.NBT.5
Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
 4.NBT.6
Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
 5.NBT.1
Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
 5.NBT.2
Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10.
 5.NBT.3
Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.
 5.NBT.3.a
Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000).
 5.NBT.3.b
Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
 5.NBT.4
Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.
 5.NBT.5
Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.
 5.NBT.6
Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
 5.NBT.7
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.
Number And Operations—Fractions
 3.NF.1
Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.
 3.NF.2
Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
 3.NF.2.a
Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.
 3.NF.2.b
Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
 3.NF.3
Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.
 3.NF.3.a
Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
 3.NF.3.b
Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
 3.NF.3.c
Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.
 3.NF.3.d
Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
 4.NF.1
Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.
 4.NF.2
Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
 4.NF.3
Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. a.
 4.NF.3.a
Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.
 4.NF.3.b
Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.
 4.NF.3.c
Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
 4.NF.3.d
Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.
 4.NF.4
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
 4.NF.4.a
Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
 4.NF.4.b
Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)
 4.NF.4.c
Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
 4.NF.5
Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.4 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.
 4.NF.6
Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram.
 4.NF.7
Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.
 5.NF.1
Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.)
 5.NF.2
Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions
 5.NF.3
Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?
 5.NF.4
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.
 5.NF.4.a
Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd.)
 5.NF.4.b
Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.
 5.NF.5
Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:
 5.NF.5.a
Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.
 5.NF.5.b
Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.
 5.NF.6
Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.
 5.NF.7
Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.1
 5.NF.7.a
Interpret division of a unit fraction by a nonzero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3.
 5.NF.7.b
Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4.
 5.NF.7.c
Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?
Operations And Algebraic Thinking
 K.OA.1
Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings2, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
 K.OA.2
Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
 K.OA.3
Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).
 K.OA.4
For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
 K.OA.5
Fluently add and subtract within 5.
 1.OA.1
Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2
 1.OA.5
Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
 1.OA.6
Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
 2.OA.1
Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1
 2.OA.2
Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies.2 By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two onedigit numbers.
 2.OA.3
Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.
 2.OA.4
Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.
 3.OA.1
Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7.
 3.OA.2
Interpret wholenumber quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
 3.OA.9
Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.
The Number System
 6.NS.2
Fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm.
 6.NS.3
Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.
 6.NS.4
Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).
 6.NS.5
Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in realworld contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.
 6.NS.6
Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.
 6.NS.6.a
Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.
 6.NS.6.b
Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.
 6.NS.6.c
Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.
 6.NS.7
Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.
 6.NS.7.a
Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right.
 6.NS.7.b
Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in realworld contexts. For example, write –3 oC > –7 oC to express the fact that –3 oC is warmer than –7 oC.
 6.NS.7.c
Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a realworld situation. For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write –30 = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.
 6.NS.7.d
Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars.
 6.NS.8
Solve realworld and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.
 6.NS.1
Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?
Key Standards Supported
Language
 L.1.1
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 L.1.1i
Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
 L.1.2b
Use end punctuation for sentences.
 L.2.1
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 L.2.2
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
 L.2.3a
Compare formal and informal uses of English.
 L.3.1a
Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
 L.3.1f
Ensure subjectverb and pronounantecedent agreement.*
 L.3.2a
Capitalize appropriate words in titles.
 L.3.2f
Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, positionbased spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words.
Reading Foundational Skills
 RF.1.2
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
 RF.2.3b
Know spellingsound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
Key Standards Supported
Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
 2LS41
Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.
 3LS41
Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
 3LS42
Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.
 3LS43
Construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.
 3LS44
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.
Earth and Human Activity
 KESS31
Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and the places they live.
 KESS32
Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather.
 KESS33
Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.
 3ESS31
Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weatherrelated hazard.
 4ESS31
Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.
 4ESS32
Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.
 5ESS31
Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment.
Earth’s Place in the Universe
 1ESS11
Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted.
 1ESS12
Make observations at different times of year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year.
 2ESS11
Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.
 4ESS11
Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
 5ESS11
Support an argument that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth.
 5ESS12
Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.
Earth’s Systems
 KESS21
Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.
 KESS22
Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.
 2ESS21
Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.
 2ESS22
Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.
 2ESS23
Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid.
 3ESS21
Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.
 3ESS22
Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.
 4ESS21
Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
 4ESS22
Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
 5ESS21
Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
 5ESS22
Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 2LS21
Plan and conduct an investigation to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow.
 2LS22
Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.
 3LS21
Construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive.
 5LS21
Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.
Energy
 KPS31
Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.
 KPS32
Use tools and materials to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area.
 4PS31
Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
 4PS32
Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
 4PS33
Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
 4PS34
Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.
 5PS31
Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 KLS11
Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.
 1LS11
Use materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.
 1LS12
Read texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive.
 3LS11
Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
 3LS12
Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
 4LS11
Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
 4LS12
Use a model to describe that animals’ receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.
 5LS11
Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.
Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 1LS31
Make observations to construct an evidencebased account that young plants and animals are like, but not exactly like, their parents.
 3LS31
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.
 3LS32
Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 KPS21
Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
 KPS22
Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.
 3PS21
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.
 3PS22
Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.
 3PS23
Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.
 3PS24
Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.
 5PS21
Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 1PS41
Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.
 1PS42
Make observations to construct an evidencebased account that objects can be seen only when illuminated.
 1PS43
Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.
 1PS44
Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.
 4PS41
Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.
 4PS42
Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.
 4PS43
Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.
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