How to address violence in the news with your students.
Pros: AP and IB teachers will love the clearly targeted and complex questions to help their students improve.
Cons: Some dull multiplechoice questions and confusing images.
Bottom Line: A variety of question types and onthespot analytics help teachers individualize testprep practice.
Albert is best used as part of a comprehensive and ongoing system of formative assessment in the classroom. Teachers can create quick exit tickets that students can answer at the end of class or at night for homework. Albert can also be used to create larger summative assessments; customized assignments allow users to control the size and scope of tasks. When used to individualize instruction, Albert allows struggling learners  and those ready to move on  an independent platform for working at a different pace than the rest of the class. Albert works seamlessly with Google Classroom, making it simple to add students and share assignments. Teachers without Google Classroom can share links to tasks using their online course platform.
Continue reading Show lessAlbert offers individualized high school and undergraduate questions for test prep, core subjects, world languages, and more. Individual students can purchase and selfstudy in prebuilt testprep courses for Advanced Placement (AP), SAT, ACT, and graduate exams such as the MCAT. Alternatively, teachers can select and build assessments from standardsaligned practice items for AP, Common Core State Standards (CCSS), Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), SAT, or ACT.
Students can answer a broad range of question types, including dropdown menus, multiple choice, highlighting passages, text entry, and more. Students may be asked to examine multiple sources of evidence and determine if statements are supported or refuted based on the evidence provided. After students complete a question, they can reveal solutions to see if their answers are correct. Even after getting an answer correct, students are provided with a more detailed explanation of the concept.
Many of the interactive items in Albert mirror the same question types frequently appearing on online assessment systems for CCSS and the NGSS. In each item, students are provided with an interesting phenomenon to figure out; students are asked to use their conceptual understanding to interpret actual historical or scientific text or data about the phenomenon. Albert is easy to use and provides teachers onthespot analytics about how their students are doing. It's flexible enough to allow teachers to create custom assignments from the item bank, controlling due dates and when the answers will be released.
Not all questions are spectacular – some are pretty straightforward multiplechoice items. Periodically, images used in the prompt aren't available, and many times the images provided have nothing to do with the question. In one question, Albert presents a fascinating phenomenon about genetic chimera, showing a picture of a chimeric mouse. Then the item jumps into a question about humans and chimeric blood types; it would be less confusing and more engaging if the item was about the mouse.
Overall Rating
Engagement
At its core, Albert is a test bank, and kids don't think tests are fun. However, the questions can be engaging as kids are asked to apply their knowledge to interesting phenomena.
Pedagogy
Ongoing formative assessment with immediate feedback allows kids to clarify key ideas and track their own progress over time. Items move beyond rote memorization to using knowledge.
Support
Video tutorials help teachers set up assignments, and ongoing feedback supports students as they practice. The elimination tool lets kids remove multiplechoice options they know aren't correct.
Key Standards Supported
Arithmetic With Polynomials And Rational Expressions
 HSA.APR.1
Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
 HSA.APR.2
Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x).
 HSA.APR.3
Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial.
 HSA.APR.4
Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples.
 HSA.APR.5
(+) Know and apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (x + y)n in powers of x and y for a positive integer n, where x and y are any numbers, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal’s Triangle.1
 HSA.APR.7
(+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.
Building Functions
 HSF.BF.1
Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.
 HSF.BF.1.a
Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context.
 HSF.BF.1.b
Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model.
 HSF.BF.1.c
(+) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time.
 HSF.BF.2
Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.
 HSF.BF.3
Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them.
 HSF.BF.4
Find inverse functions.
 HSF.BF.4.a
Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x ≠ 1.
 HSF.BF.4.b
(+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another.
 HSF.BF.4.c
(+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse.
 HSF.BF.4.d
(+) Produce an invertible function from a noninvertible function by restricting the domain.
 HSF.BF.5
(+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.
Circles
 HSG.C.1
Prove that all circles are similar.
 HSG.C.2
Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.
 HSG.C.3
Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.
 HSG.C.4
(+) Construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle.
 HSG.C.5
Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.
Conditional Probability And The Rules Of Probability
 HSS.CP.1
Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”).
 HSS.CP.2
Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.
 HSS.CP.3
Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B.
 HSS.CP.4
Construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results.
 HSS.CP.5
Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer.
 HSS.CP.6
Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.
 HSS.CP.7
Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.
 HSS.CP.8
(+) Apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(BA) = P(B)P(AB), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.
 HSS.CP.9
(+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems.
Congruence
 HSG.CO.6
Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.
 HSG.CO.7
Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.
 HSG.CO.8
Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.
 HSG.CO.1
Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.
 HSG.CO.2
Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
 HSG.CO.3
Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.
 HSG.CO.4
Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.
 HSG.CO.5
Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.
 HSG.CO.9
Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints.
 HSG.CO.10
Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point.
 HSG.CO.11
Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals.
 HSG.CO.12
Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line.
 HSG.CO.13
Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.
Creating Equations
 HSA.CED.1
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions.
 HSA.CED.2
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales.
 HSA.CED.3
Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.
 HSA.CED.4
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R.
Expressing Geometric Properties With Equations
 HSG.GPE.1
Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.
 HSG.GPE.2
Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.
 HSG.GPE.3
(+) Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant.
 HSG.GPE.4
Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2).
 HSG.GPE.5
Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).
 HSG.GPE.6
Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio.
 HSG.GPE.7
Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.
Geometric Measurement And Dimension
 HSG.GMD.3
Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.
 HSG.GMD.4
Identify the shapes of twodimensional crosssections of three dimensional objects, and identify threedimensional objects generated by rotations of twodimensional objects.
Interpreting Categorical And Quantitative Data
 HSS.ID.1
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).
 HSS.ID.2
Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.
 HSS.ID.3
Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).
 HSS.ID.4
Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.
 HSS.ID.5
Summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.
 HSS.ID.6
Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
 HSS.ID.6.a
Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.
 HSS.ID.6.b
Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.
 HSS.ID.6.c
Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.
 HSS.ID.7
Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.
 HSS.ID.8
Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.
 HSS.ID.9
Distinguish between correlation and causation.
Interpreting Functions
 HSF.IF.1
Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x).
 HSF.IF.2
Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context.
 HSF.IF.3
Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n1) for n ≥ 1.
 HSF.IF.4
For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.
 HSF.IF.5
Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.
 HSF.IF.6
Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.
 HSF.IF.7
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.
 HSF.IF.7.a
Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima.
 HSF.IF.7.b
Graph square root, cube root, and piecewisedefined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions.
 HSF.IF.7.c
Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
 HSF.IF.7.d
(+) Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.
 HSF.IF.7.e
Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.
 HSF.IF.8
Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function.
 HSF.IF.8.a
Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context.
 HSF.IF.8.b
Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay.
 HSF.IF.9
Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum.
Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models
 HSF.LE.1
Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions.
 HSF.LE.1.a
Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals.
 HSF.LE.1.b
Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another.
 HSF.LE.1.c
Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.
 HSF.LE.2
Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table).
 HSF.LE.3
Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.
 HSF.LE.4
For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to abct =dwherea,c,anddarenumbersandthebasebis2,10,ore; evaluate the logarithm using technology.
 HSF.LE.5
Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.
Making Inferences And Justifying Conclusions
 HSS.IC.1
Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.
 HSS.IC.2
Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process, e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model?
 HSS.IC.3
Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.
 HSS.IC.4
Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.
 HSS.IC.5
Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.
 HSS.IC.6
Evaluate reports based on data.
Quantities
 HSN.Q .1
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
 HSN.Q .2
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.
 HSN.Q .3
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
Reasoning With Equations And Inequalities
 HSA.REI.3
Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters.
 HSA.REI.4
Solve quadratic equations in one variable.
 HSA.REI.4.a
Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form.
 HSA.REI.4.b
Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.
 HSA.REI.1
Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method.
 HSA.REI.2
Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.
 HSA.REI.5
Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.
 HSA.REI.6
Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables.
 HSA.REI.7
Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle x2 + y2 = 3.
 HSA.REI.8
(+) Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.
 HSA.REI.9
(+) Find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations (using technology for matrices of dimension 3 × 3 or greater).
 HSA.REI.10
Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line).
 HSA.REI.11
Explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.
 HSA.REI.12
Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes.
Seeing Structure In Expressions
 HSA.SSE.1
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.
 HSA.SSE.1.a
Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.
 HSA.SSE.1.b
Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.
 HSA.SSE.2
Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2).
 HSA.SSE.3
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.
 HSA.SSE.3.a
Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.
 HSA.SSE.3.b
Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.
 HSA.SSE.3.c
Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%.
 HSA.SSE.4
Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments.
Similarity, Right Triangles, And Trigonometry
 HSG.SRT.1
Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor:
 HSG.SRT.1.a
A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.
 HSG.SRT.1.b
The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.
 HSG.SRT.2
Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.
 HSG.SRT.3
Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.
 HSG.SRT.9
(+) Derive the formula A = 1/2 ab sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side.
 HSG.SRT.10
(+) Prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems.
 HSG.SRT.11
(+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and nonright triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces).
 HSG.SRT.4
Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity.
 HSG.SRT.5
Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.
 HSG.SRT.6
Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.
 HSG.SRT.7
Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles.
 HSG.SRT.8
Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.
The Complex Number System
 HSN.CN.1
Know there is a complex number i such that i2 = –1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real.
 HSN.CN.2
Use the relation i2 = –1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers.
 HSN.CN.3
(+) Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers.
 HSN.CN.4
(+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.
 HSN.CN.5
(+) Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, (–1 + √3 i)3 = 8 because (–1 + √3 i) has modulus 2 and argument 120°.
 HSN.CN.6
(+) Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints.
 HSN.CN.7
Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions.
 HSN.CN.8
(+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i)(x – 2i).
 HSN.CN.9
(+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials.
The Real Number System
 HSN.RN.1
Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5.
 HSN.RN.2
Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents.
 HSN.RN.3
Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational.
Trigonometric Functions
 HSF.TF.1
Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle.
 HSF.TF.2
Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle.
 HSF.TF.3
(+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π–x, π+x, and 2π–x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number.
 HSF.TF.4
(+) Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions.
 HSF.TF.5
Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.
 HSF.TF.6
(+) Understand that restricting a trigonometric function to a domain on which it is always increasing or always decreasing allows its inverse to be constructed.
 HSF.TF.7
(+) Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context.
 HSF.TF.8
Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to calculate trigonometric ratios.
 HSF.TF.9
(+) Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems.
Using Probability To Make Decisions
 HSS.MD.1
(+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.
 HSS.MD.2
(+) Calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution.
 HSS.MD.3
(+) Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value. For example, find the theoretical probability distribution for the number of correct answers obtained by guessing on
 HSS.MD.4
(+) Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value. For example, find a current data distribution on the number of TV sets per household in the United States, and calculate the expected number of sets per household. How many TV sets would you expect to find in 100 randomly selected households?
 Copyright 2010. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. All rights reserved.
 HSS.MD.5
(+) Weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values.
 HSS.MD.5.a
Find the expected payoff for a game of chance. For example, find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fast food restaurant.
 HSS.MD.5.b
Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values. For example, compare a highdeductible versus a lowdeductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident.
 HSS.MD.6
(+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator).
 HSS.MD.7
(+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).
Vector And Matrix Quantities
 HSN.VM.4
(+) Add and subtract vectors.
 HSN.VM.4.a
Add vectors endtoend, componentwise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes.
 HSN.VM.4.b
Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum.
 HSN.VM.4.c
Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction componentwise.
 HSN.VM.5
(+) Multiply a vector by a scalar.
 HSN.VM.5.a
Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication componentwise, e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy).
 HSN.VM.5.b
Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using cv = cv. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when cv ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0).
 HSN.VM.1
(+) Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, v, v, v).
 HSN.VM.2
(+) Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point.
 HSN.VM.3
(+) Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.
 HSN.VM.6
(+) Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network.
 HSN.VM.7
(+) Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled.
 HSN.VM.8
(+) Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions.
 HSN.VM.9
(+) Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.
 HSN.VM.10
(+) Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.
 HSN.VM.11
(+) Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors.
 HSN.VM.12
(+) Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.
Key Standards Supported
Language
 L.910.1
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 L.910.1a
Use parallel structure.*
 L.910.1b
Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
 L.910.2
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
 L.910.2a
Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
 L.910.2b
Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
 L.910.2c
Spell correctly.
 L.910.3
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
 L.910.3a
Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
 L.910.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
 L.910.4a
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 L.910.4b
Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
 L.910.4c
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
 L.910.4d
Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
 L.910.5
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 L.910.5a
Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
 L.910.5b
Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
 L.910.6
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domainspecific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 L.1112.1
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
 L.1112.1a
Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
 L.1112.1b
Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., MerriamWebster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.
 L.1112.2
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
 L.1112.2.b
Spell correctly.
 L.1112.2a
Observe hyphenation conventions.
 L.1112.3
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
 L.1112.3a
Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
 L.1112.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
 L.1112.4a
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
 L.1112.4b
Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
 L.1112.4c
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
 L.1112.4d
Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
 L.1112.5
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
 L.1112.5a
Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
 L.1112.5b
Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
 L.1112.6
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domainspecific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Reading History/Social Studies
 RH.910.1
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
 RH.910.2
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
 RH.910.3
Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
 RH.910.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
 RH.910.5
Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
 RH.910.6
Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
 RH.910.7
Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
 RH.910.8
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
 RH.910.9
Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
 RH.910.10
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 RH.1112.1
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
 RH.1112.2
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.
 RH.1112.3
Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.
 RH.1112.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
 RH.1112.5
Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is structured, including how key sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole.
 RH.1112.6
Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
 RH.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
 RH.1112.8
Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information.
 RH.1112.9
Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
 RH.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Reading Informational Text
 RI.910.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 RI.910.2
Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
 RI.910.3
Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
 RI.910.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
 RI.910.5
Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
 RI.910.6
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
 RI.910.7
Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
 RI.910.8
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
 RI.910.9
Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.
 RI.910.10
By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
 RI.1112.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
 RI.1112.2
Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.
 RI.1112.3
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
 RI.1112.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
 RI.1112.5
Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
 RI.1112.6
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text.
 RI.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.
 RI.1112.8
Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
 RI.1112.9
Analyze seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenthcentury foundational U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.
 RI.1112.10
By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Reading Literature
 RL.910.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 RL.910.2
Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
 RL.910.3
Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
 RL.910.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
 RL.910.5
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
 RL.910.6
Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
 RL.910.7
Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
 RL.910.8
(Not applicable to literature)
 RL.910.9
Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
 RL.910.10
By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
 RL.1112.1
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.
 RL.1112.2
Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
 RL.1112.3
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
 RL.1112.4
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
 RL.1112.5
Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
 RL.1112.6
Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
 RL.1112.7
Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)
 RL.1112.8
(Not applicable to literature)
 RL.1112.9
Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth, nineteenth and earlytwentiethcentury foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.
 RL.1112.10
By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Reading Science/Technical
 RST.910.1
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.
 RST.910.2
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process, phenomenon, or concept; provide an accurate summary of the text.
 RST.910.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text.
 RST.910.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics.
 RST.910.5
Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
 RST.910.6
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.
 RST.910.7
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
 RST.910.8
Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.
 RST.910.9
Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
 RST.910.10
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 RST.1112.1
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.
 RST.1112.2
Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.
 RST.1112.3
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.
 RST.1112.4
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domainspecific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
 RST.1112.5
Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas.
 RST.1112.6
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.
 RST.1112.7
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem.
 RST.1112.8
Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
 RST.1112.9
Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
 RST.1112.10
By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11–12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Key Standards Supported
Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
 HSLS41
Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.
 HSLS42
Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
 HSLS43
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
 HSLS44
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.
 HSLS45
Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.
Earth and Human Activity
 HSESS31
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.
 HSESS32
Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on costbenefit ratios.
 HSESS35
Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidencebased forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems.
 HSESS36
Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.
Earth’s Place in the Universe
 HSESS11
Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.
 HSESS12
Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe.
 HSESS13
Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements.
 HSESS14
Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.
 HSESS15
Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.
 HSESS16
Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history.
Earth’s Systems
 HSESS21
Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and oceanfloor features.
 HSESS22
Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.
 HSESS23
Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.
 HSESS24
Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth's systems result in changes in climate.
 HSESS26
Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
 HSLS21
Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.
 HSLS22
Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.
 HSLS23
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
 HSLS24
Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.
 HSLS25
Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
 HSLS26
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.
 HSLS28
Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce.
Energy
 HSPS32
Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects).
 HSPS35
Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
 HSLS11
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
 HSLS12
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
 HSLS14
Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.
 HSLS15
Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
 HSLS16
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbonbased molecules.
 HSLS17
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
 HSLS31
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
 HSLS32
Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.
 HSLS33
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.
Matter and Its Interactions
 HSPS11
Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
 HSPS12
Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
 HSPS14
Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
 HSPS15
Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
 HSPS16
Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
 HSPS17
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
 HSPS18
Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.
Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
 HSPS21
Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
 HSPS22
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
 HSPS24
Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.
 HSPS26
Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecularlevel structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
 HSPS41
Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
 HSPS43
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.
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