Subjects and Skills: LearnBop
Critical Thinking
Pros: The stepbystep help for kids is incredibly valuable, and detailed data reports for teachers allow for even more individualized learning.
Cons: While working through the steps is really helpful, there's no clear fun factor that appeals to kid sensibilities.
Bottom Line: It's a great tool for filling in learning gaps and for individualizing learning; kids get practice that really helps them grasp concepts.
This could become an invaluable classroom tool for teachers in many ways. Its developers tout LearnBop as a way to identify and fill in learning gaps from previous years so that kids are ready to learn at their own grade level. In fact, you can use LearnBop to identify and improve problem areas for each individual student. Alignment to Common Core standards for each step of each “bop” helps you identify exactly where kids are having problems, and class and individual data collection helps you know where to focus their efforts for maximum effect. Identifying stronger learners and weaker learners can also help you group kids together for effective peer tutoring. Assign problems for individuals to do in class or at home, or use a smart board to demonstrate problems to the class or small groups.
Continue reading Read lessLearnBop is a virtual tutorial system that takes kids through math problems step by step, giving hints where kids need help and identifying gaps in the basic knowledge behind more complicated concepts. Helpful hints include pictures, graphs, and/or video explanations (courtesy of partner site LearnZillion). All problems are directly related to a specific Common Core State Standard, so kids and teachers easily identify the concept behind the problem and the relevant grade level. You can create classes, assign “bops,” and see detailed performance reports that include data on which problems kids answered correctly or incorrectly, which concepts posed problems, which students were strong or weak in which specific areas, and so on.
Continue reading Read lessWouldn’t it be nice if kids all had personal tutors who could help them work through difficult problems, fill in gaps in basic knowledge, and patiently provide hints and extra information to encourage comprehension? LearnBop may not be exactly that  it's just a computer program, after all, and is thus limited by what it's been programmed to do  but it does get pretty darn close. When kids answer a problem incorrectly (or choose the Ask for Help option), LearnBop starts in with a clear, purposeful breakdown of the different pieces of knowledge kids need to solve the problem. Each step of the way, kids can ask for more help, or answer the substeps and move on to eventually answering the target problem correctly. Teachers get an amazingly detailed view of what their students are doing, which can help them pinpoint problem areas. Ultimately, these details make LearnBop stand out among tutorial sites, and may really make a difference for kids who need to see every step for true understanding of concepts.
LearnBop does have a schoolwork vibe, so some kids may not feel totally engaged. But a friendly interface featuring two cute panda guides and, most of all, the empowering feeling of actually understanding math will be motivation enough for most. It would be great if content were expanded to tackle even more complex math concepts, making this a place where high school students could get stepbystep assistance on trickier advanced math topics.
Continue reading Read lessOverall Rating
Engagement Is the product stimulating, entertaining, and engrossing? Will kids want to return?
Though it's not a game with bells and whistles that may appeal to kids, the clean, clear design and welcoming interface make it as engaging as a tutorial site can be. Kids will like the cute panda mascots that appear during their lessons.
Pedagogy Is learning content seamlessly bakedin, and do kids build conceptual understanding? Is the product adaptable and empowering? Will skills transfer?
Learning content is solid: Stepbystep tutorials have high potential for helping kids understand math. The program is very responsive to kids' input, though it does require an adult to interpret performance and assign problems accordingly.
Support Does the product take into account learners of varying abilities, skill levels, and learning styles? Does it address both struggling and advanced students?
Videos and guides demonstrate how to use the site, and there's lots of help and support for solving math problems. A superior system of data reporting pinpoints where kids' comprehension problems lie.
Key Standards Supported
Arithmetic With Polynomials And Rational Expressions  
HSA.APR: Perform Arithmetic Operations On Polynomials  
HSA.APR.1  Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. 
Understand The Relationship Between Zeros And Factors Of Polynomials  
HSA.APR.2  Know and apply the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x – a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x – a) is a factor of p(x). 
HSA.APR.3  Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the function defined by the polynomial. 
Use Polynomial Identities To Solve Problems  
HSA.APR.4  Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. 
Rewrite Rational Expressions  
HSA.APR.6  Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system. 
HSA.APR.7  (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. 
Building Functions  
HSF.BF: Build A Function That Models A Relationship Between Two Quantities  
HSF.BF.1  Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. 
HSF.BF.1.a  Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. 
HSF.BF.1.b  Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. 
HSF.BF.1.c  (+) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time. 
HSF.BF.2  Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms.★ 
Build New Functions From Existing Functions  
HSF.BF.3  Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. 
HSF.BF.4  Find inverse functions. 
HSF.BF.4.a  Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x–1) for x ≠ 1. 
HSF.BF.4.b  (+) Verify by composition that one function is the inverse of another. 
HSF.BF.4.c  (+) Read values of an inverse function from a graph or a table, given that the function has an inverse. 
HSF.BF.4.d  (+) Produce an invertible function from a noninvertible function by restricting the domain. 
Circles: HSG.C  
HSG.C.2  Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle. 
HSG.C.3  Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. 
Find Arc Lengths And Areas Of Sectors Of Circles  
HSG.C.5  Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector. 
Conditional Probability And The Rules Of Probability  
HSS.CP: Understand Independence And Conditional Probability And Use Them To Interpret Data  
HSS.CP.1  Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events (“or,” “and,” “not”). 
HSS.CP.2  Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent. 
HSS.CP.3  Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. 
HSS.CP.4  Construct and interpret twoway frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the twoway table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results. 
HSS.CP.5  Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer. 
Use The Rules Of Probability To Compute Probabilities Of Compound Events In A Uniform Probability Model  
HSS.CP.6  Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model. 
HSS.CP.7  Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model. 
Congruence  
HSG.CO: Understand Congruence In Terms Of Rigid Motions  
HSG.CO.6  Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent. 
HSG.CO.7  Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent. 
Experiment With Transformations In The Plane  
HSG.CO.2  Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch). 
HSG.CO.3  Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself. 
Prove Geometric Theorems  
HSG.CO.9  Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment’s endpoints. 
HSG.CO.10  Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point. 
HSG.CO.11  Prove theorems about parallelograms. Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals. 
Counting And Cardinality  
K.CC: Know Number Names And The Count Sequence.  
K.CC.2  Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1). 
K.CC.3  Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 020 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). 
Count To Tell The Number Of Objects.  
K.CC.5  Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects. 
Creating Equations  
HSA.CED: Create Equations That Describe Numbers Or Relationships  
HSA.CED.1  Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. 
HSA.CED.2  Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. 
HSA.CED.3  Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. 
HSA.CED.4  Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. For example, rearrange Ohm’s law V = IR to highlight resistance R. 
Expressing Geometric Properties With Equations  
HSG.GPE: Translate Between The Geometric Description And The Equation For A Conic Section  
HSG.GPE.1  Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation. 
HSG.GPE.2  Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix. 
Use Coordinates To Prove Simple Geometric Theorems Algebraically  
HSG.GPE.4  Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2). 
HSG.GPE.5  Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). 
HSG.GPE.6  Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio. 
HSG.GPE.7  Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.★ 
Expressions And Equations  
7.EE: Use Properties Of Operations To Generate Equivalent Expressions.  
7.EE.1  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients. 
Functions  
8.F: Define, Evaluate, And Compare Functions.  
8.F.1  Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1 
8.F.2  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 
8.F.3  Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. 
Use Functions To Model Relationships Between Quantities.  
8.F.4  Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 
8.F.5  Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. 
Geometric Measurement And Dimension  
HSG.GMD: Explain Volume Formulas And Use Them To Solve Problems  
HSG.GMD.1  Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri’s principle, and informal limit arguments. 
HSG.GMD.3  Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.★ 
Geometry  
K.G: Identify And Describe Shapes (Squares, Circles, Triangles, Rectangles, Hexagons, Cubes, Cones, Cylinders, And Spheres).  
K.G.1  Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to. 
K.G.2  Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. 
Analyze, Compare, Create, And Compose Shapes.  
K.G.4  Analyze and compare two and threedimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). 
K.G.5  Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes. 
K.G.6  Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?” 
1.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
1.G.1  Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 
1.G.2  Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.4 
2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
2.G.1  Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. 
3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
3.G.1  Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. 
4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles.  
4.G.1  Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. 
4.G.2  Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. 
4.G.3  Recognize a line of symmetry for a twodimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. 
5.G: Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems.  
5.G.2  Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. 
Classify TwoDimensional Figures Into Categories Based On Their Properties.  
5.G.3  Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. 
5.G.4  Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. 
6.G: Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
6.G.1  Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.2  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.3  Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
6.G.4  Represent threedimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld and mathematical problems. 
7.G: Draw, Construct, And Describe Geometrical Figures And Describe The Relationships Between Them.  
7.G.1  Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale. 
7.G.2  Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. 
7.G.3  Describe the twodimensional figures that result from slicing three dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. 
Solve RealLife And Mathematical Problems Involving Angle Measure, Area, Surface Area, And Volume.  
7.G.4  Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle. 
7.G.5  Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multistep problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure. 
7.G.6  Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two and threedimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. 
8.G: Understand Congruence And Similarity Using Physical Models, Trans Parencies, Or Geometry Software.  
8.G.1  Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: 
8.G.1.a  Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length. 
8.G.1.b  Angles are taken to angles of the same measure. 
8.G.1.c  Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines. 
8.G.2  Understand that a twodimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. 
8.G.3  Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on twodimensional figures using coordinates. 
8.G.4  Understand that a twodimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. 
8.G.5  Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angleangle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. 
Understand And Apply The Pythagorean Theorem.  
8.G.6  Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 
8.G.7  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in realworld and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. 
8.G.8  Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. 
Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems Involving Volume Of Cylinders, Cones, And Spheres.  
8.G.9  Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve realworld and mathematical problems. 
Interpreting Categorical And Quantitative Data  
HSS.ID: Summarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On A Single Count Or Measurement Variable  
HSS.ID.1  Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). 
HSS.ID.2  Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. 
HSS.ID.3  Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). 
HSS.ID.4  Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve. 
Summarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On Two Categorical And Quantitative Variables  
HSS.ID.5  Summarize categorical data for two categories in twoway frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data. 
HSS.ID.6  Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related. 
HSS.ID.6.a  Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models. 
HSS.ID.6.b  Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals. 
HSS.ID.6.c  Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. 
Interpret Linear Models  
HSS.ID.7  Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. 
HSS.ID.8  Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit. 
HSS.ID.9  Distinguish between correlation and causation. 
Interpreting Functions  
HSF.IF: Understand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation  
HSF.IF.1  Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). 
HSF.IF.2  Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. 
HSF.IF.3  Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n1) for n ≥ 1. 
Interpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context  
HSF.IF.4  For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.★ 
HSF.IF.5  Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of personhours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.★ 
HSF.IF.6  Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.★ 
Analyze Functions Using Different Representations  
HSF.IF.7  Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases.★ 
HSF.IF.7.a  Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. 
HSF.IF.7.b  Graph square root, cube root, and piecewisedefined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. 
HSF.IF.7.c  Graph polynomial functions, identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. 
HSF.IF.7.d  (+) Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior. 
HSF.IF.7.e  Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude. 
HSF.IF.8  Write a function defined by an expression in different but equivalent forms to reveal and explain different properties of the function. 
HSF.IF.8.a  Use the process of factoring and completing the square in a quadratic function to show zeros, extreme values, and symmetry of the graph, and interpret these in terms of a context. 
HSF.IF.8.b  Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay. 
HSF.IF.9  Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. 
Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models  
HSF.LE: Construct And Compare Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models And Solve Problems  
HSF.LE.1  Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions. 
HSF.LE.1.a  Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. 
HSF.LE.1.b  Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. 
HSF.LE.1.c  Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. 
HSF.LE.2  Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two inputoutput pairs (include reading these from a table). 
HSF.LE.3  Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. 
HSF.LE.4  For exponential models, express as a logarithm the solution to abct =dwherea,c,anddarenumbersandthebasebis2,10,ore; evaluate the logarithm using technology. 
Making Inferences And Justifying Conclusions  
HSS.IC: Understand And Evaluate Random Processes Underlying Statistical Experiments  
HSS.IC.2  Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given datagenerating process, e.g., using simulation. For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model? 
Make Inferences And Justify Conclusions From Sample Surveys, Experiments, And Observational Studies  
HSS.IC.4  Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling. 
HSS.IC.5  Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant. 
Measurement And Data  
K.MD: Classify Objects And Count The Number Of Objects In Each Category.  
K.MD.3  Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.3 
1.MD: Measure Lengths Indirectly And By Iterating Length Units.  
1.MD.1  Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. 
1.MD.2  Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. 
Tell And Write Time.  
1.MD.3  Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
1.MD.4  Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. 
2.MD: Measure And Estimate Lengths In Standard Units.  
2.MD.1  Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. 
2.MD.2  Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. 
Work With Time And Money.  
2.MD.7  Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. 
2.MD.8  Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? 
3.MD: Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Area And Relate Area To Multiplication And To Addition.  
3.MD.6  Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). 
3.MD.7.b  Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. 
Geometric Measurement: Recognize Perimeter As An Attribute Of Plane Figures And Distinguish Between Linear And Area Measures.  
3.MD.8  Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. 
4.MD: Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Conversion Of Measurements From A Larger Unit To A Smaller Unit.  
4.MD.1  Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... 
4.MD.2  Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. 
4.MD.3  Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
4.MD.4  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Angle And Measure Angles.  
4.MD.5  Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: 
4.MD.6  Measure angles in wholenumber degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. 
4.MD.7  Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. 
5.MD: Convert Like Measurement Units Within A Given Measurement System.  
5.MD.1  Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
5.MD.2  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Volume And Relate Volume To Multiplication And To Addition.  
5.MD.5  Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. 
5.MD.5.b  Apply the formulas V=l×w×handV=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. 
5.MD.5.c  Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two nonoverlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Modeling With Geometry  
HSG.MG: Apply Geometric Concepts In Modeling Situations  
HSG.MG.2  Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).★ 
Number And Operations In Base Ten  
K.NBT: Work With Numbers 11–19 To Gain Foundations For Place Value.  
K.NBT.1  Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 
1.NBT: Extend The Counting Sequence.  
1.NBT.1  Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. 
Understand Place Value.  
1.NBT.2  Understand that the two digits of a twodigit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
1.NBT.2.a  10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.” b. 
1.NBT.2.b  The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 
1.NBT.2.c  The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). 
1.NBT.3  Compare two twodigit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
1.NBT.4  Add within 100, including adding a twodigit number and a onedigit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding twodigit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten. 
1.NBT.6  Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 1090 from multiples of 10 in the range 1090 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
2.NBT: Understand Place Value.  
2.NBT.1  Understand that the three digits of a threedigit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
2.NBT.1.a  100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.” 
2.NBT.1.b  The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). 
2.NBT.3  Read and write numbers to 1000 using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. 
2.NBT.4  Compare two threedigit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
2.NBT.5  Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
3.NBT: Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.4  
3.NBT.1  Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. 
3.NBT.2  Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
3.NBT.3  Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
4.NBT: Generalize Place Value Understanding For MultiDigit Whole Numbers.  
4.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. 
4.NBT.2  Read and write multidigit whole numbers using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multidigit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
4.NBT.3  Use place value understanding to round multidigit whole numbers to any place. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.  
4.NBT.4  Fluently add and subtract multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
4.NBT.5  Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a onedigit whole number, and multiply two twodigit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
4.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients and remainders with up to fourdigit dividends and onedigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT: Understand The Place Value System.  
5.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left. 
5.NBT.2  Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10. 
5.NBT.3  Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. 
5.NBT.3.a  Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000). 
5.NBT.3.b  Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
5.NBT.4  Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. 
Perform Operations With MultiDigit Whole Numbers And With Decimals To Hundredths.  
5.NBT.5  Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
5.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT.7  Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
Number And Operations—Fractions  
3.NF: Develop Understanding Of Fractions As Numbers.  
3.NF.2.a  Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. 
3.NF.3.b  Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
4.NF: Extend Understanding Of Fraction Equivalence And Ordering.  
4.NF.1  Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. 
4.NF.2  Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
Build Fractions From Unit Fractions By Applying And Extending Previous Understandings Of Operations On Whole Numbers.  
4.NF.3  Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. a. 
4.NF.3.b  Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. 
4.NF.3.c  Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
4.NF.3.d  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. 
4.NF.4.b  Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.) 
4.NF.4.c  Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
Understand Decimal Notation For Fractions, And Compare Decimal Fractions.  
4.NF.5  Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.4 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. 
4.NF.6  Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. 
4.NF.7  Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. 
5.NF: Use Equivalent Fractions As A Strategy To Add And Subtract Fractions.  
5.NF.1  Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.) 
5.NF.2  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions 
Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Multiplication And Division To Multiply And Divide Fractions.  
5.NF.3  Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
5.NF.4  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. 
5.NF.4.a  Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd.) 
5.NF.4.b  Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 
5.NF.5  Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by: 
5.NF.5.a  Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. 
5.NF.5.b  Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1. 
5.NF.6  Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. 
5.NF.7  Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.1 
5.NF.7.c  Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins? 
Operations And Algebraic Thinking  
K.OA: Understand Addition As Putting Together And Adding To, And Under Stand Subtraction As Taking Apart And Taking From.  
K.OA.2  Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem. 
1.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
1.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.2 
1.OA.2  Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
Understand And Apply Properties Of Operations And The Relationship Between Addition And Subtraction.  
1.OA.3  Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.3 Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.) 
Add And Subtract Within 20.  
1.OA.6  Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). 
Work With Addition And Subtraction Equations.  
1.OA.7  Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2. 
1.OA.8  Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = � – 3, 6 + 6 = �. 
2.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction.  
2.OA.1  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one and twostep word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
Work With Equal Groups Of Objects To Gain Foundations For Multiplication.  
2.OA.3  Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. 
3.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Multiplication And Division.  
3.OA.3  Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 
4.OA: Use The Four Operations With Whole Numbers To Solve Problems.  
4.OA.2  Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 
4.OA.3  Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having wholenumber answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. 
Gain Familiarity With Factors And Multiples.  
4.OA.4  Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given onedigit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite. 
Generate And Analyze Patterns.  
4.OA.5  Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. 
5.OA: Write And Interpret Numerical Expressions.  
5.OA.1  Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. 
5.OA.2  Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. 
Analyze Patterns And Relationships.  
5.OA.3  Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. 
Ratios And Proportional Relationships  
6.RP: Understand Ratio Concepts And Use Ratio Reasoning To Solve Problems.  
6.RP.1  Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.” 
Reasoning With Equations And Inequalities  
HSA.REI: Solve Equations And Inequalities In One Variable  
HSA.REI.3  Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. 
HSA.REI.4  Solve quadratic equations in one variable. 
HSA.REI.4.a  Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form. 
HSA.REI.4.b  Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b. 
Understand Solving Equations As A Process Of Reasoning And Explain The Reasoning  
HSA.REI.1  Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. 
HSA.REI.2  Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise. 
Solve Systems Of Equations  
HSA.REI.5  Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. 
HSA.REI.6  Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. 
HSA.REI.7  Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle x2 + y2 = 3. 
Represent And Solve Equations And Inequalities Graphically  
HSA.REI.11  Explain why the xcoordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions.★ 
HSA.REI.12  Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes. 
Seeing Structure In Expressions  
HSA.SSE: Interpret The Structure Of Expressions  
HSA.SSE.1  Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. 
HSA.SSE.1.a  Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. 
HSA.SSE.1.b  Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. 
HSA.SSE.2  Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2). 
Write Expressions In Equivalent Forms To Solve Problems  
HSA.SSE.3  Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.★ 
HSA.SSE.3.a  Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines. 
HSA.SSE.3.b  Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines. 
HSA.SSE.3.c  Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t ≈ 1.01212t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. 
Similarity, Right Triangles, And Trigonometry  
HSG.SRT: Understand Similarity In Terms Of Similarity Transformations  
HSG.SRT.1  Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor: 
HSG.SRT.1.a  A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged. 
HSG.SRT.1.b  The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor. 
HSG.SRT.2  Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides. 
HSG.SRT.3  Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar. 
Prove Theorems Involving Similarity  
HSG.SRT.4  Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity. 
HSG.SRT.5  Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. 
Define Trigonometric Ratios And Solve Problems Involving Right Triangles  
HSG.SRT.6  Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles. 
HSG.SRT.7  Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles. 
HSG.SRT.8  Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.★ 
Trigonometric Functions  
HSF.TF: Extend The Domain Of Trigonometric Functions Using The Unit Circle  
HSF.TF.1  Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle. 
HSF.TF.2  Explain how the unit circle in the coordinate plane enables the extension of trigonometric functions to all real numbers, interpreted as radian measures of angles traversed counterclockwise around the unit circle. 
HSF.TF.3  (+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π–x, π+x, and 2π–x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number. 
Prove And Apply Trigonometric Identities  
HSF.TF.8  Prove the Pythagorean identity sin2(θ) + cos2(θ) = 1 and use it to calculate trigonometric ratios. 
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