Splash Math for Classrooms
Classroom edition still fun, needs better Common Core reporting
Subjects and Skills: Splash Math for Classrooms
Critical Thinking
Pros: Splash Math makes it easy to practice and track students' growth on specific math concepts.
Cons: Benchmark assessments and Common Core info in the reports would increase usefulness; the ability to assign specific tasks would be a nice addition.
Bottom Line: These engaging math games for younger kids are great for skills practice, but teachers could benefit from better Common Core reporting.
Splash Math Classroom can make for a great review tool, once you've already covered concepts in class. Practicing with this type of gamebased system can help motivate students. As students review, the program's instant feedback can help kids catch mistakes quickly. The website version could serve as a useful tool for tracking homework, as it's easy to see and track students' use and progress. While it isn't suited to be a standalone tool, Splash Math can provide some solid formative assessment information, helping teachers keep note of their students' progress.
Continue reading Read lessSplash Math's gamebased content targets Common Core math content for kindergarten through fifth grade. Once on the site (or Chrome app), students choose a grade level before playing a series of animated games and activities. The student dashboard gives kids a starting point, allowing them to pick specific math concepts to practice. Students, teachers, and parents can see data on time spent on topics, accuracy, and level of mastery. However, reports don't include info on Common Core coverage.
Each activity includes 20 questions of various types. While the questions are textbased, no audio support is offered for reading them. Upon answering questions, students get instant feedback; if a student misses a question, the correct answer is displayed with a short explanation. Points are earned throughout  these can be redeemed for virtual rewards in the Splash Math store. The teacher dashboard provides an overview of the concepts, access to the class rosters, and several reports. Teachers can enter parent emails into the system, enabling Splash Math to autosend reports to families.
Continue reading Read lessMuch like the a la carte, gradelevel apps available from the same developer, Splash Math Classroom Edition offers colorful, interactive games that are bound to engage younger students. Especially at the earlier grade levels, the games and lessons here can certainly help kids practice their math skills. It's likely to be more appealing to younger users; the experience may tire for more mature students. Exercises provide a variety of question types aimed at covering the Common Core standards. However, while the exercises target the standards, a list isn't included in the teacher dashboard, nor is there a Common Core progress report available.
In the program, students can pick any concept to practice, and in any order. Skills aren't "unlocked" as kids show readiness; instead, every concept is open to everyone, all the time. While this freedom is great for personal exploration, teachers will likely want to assign, or at least suggest, specific skills. Also, the lack of audio support combined with the site's reliance on textheavy questions could exclude ELLs or students with reading difficulties.
Continue reading Read lessOverall Rating
Engagement Is the product stimulating, entertaining, and engrossing? Will kids want to return?
The overall design is clear and simple to navigate. The games and activities are likely most engaging for younger users; older students may grow tired of the underwater theme, characters, and the sounds of crashing waves.
Pedagogy Is learning content seamlessly bakedin, and do kids build conceptual understanding? Is the product adaptable and empowering? Will skills transfer?
The various math concepts include placevalue charts, baseten blocks, and numerical values. While activities are Common Corefocused, standards aren't listed on the teacher dashboard and reports don't include mastery info.
Support Does the product take into account learners of varying abilities, skill levels, and learning styles? Does it address both struggling and advanced students?
The builtin support may not be enough to explain gameplay in every instance. Help for struggling students is only textbased and provides few strategies. The activities could be improved with less reliance on text, and with added audio support.
Key Standards Supported
Geometry  
1.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
1.G.1  Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. 
1.G.2  Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.4 
1.G.3  Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. 
2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
2.G.1  Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. 
2.G.2  Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of samesize squares and count to find the total number of them. 
2.G.3  Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape. 
3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes.  
3.G.1  Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. 
3.G.2  Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape. 
4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles.  
4.G.1  Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in twodimensional figures. 
4.G.2  Classify twodimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. 
4.G.3  Recognize a line of symmetry for a twodimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. 
5.G: Classify TwoDimensional Figures Into Categories Based On Their Properties.  
5.G.3  Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. 
5.G.4  Classify twodimensional figures in a hierarchy based on properties. 
Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve RealWorld And Mathematical Problems.  
5.G.1  Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., xaxis and xcoordinate, yaxis and ycoordinate). 
5.G.2  Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. 
Measurement And Data  
1.MD: Measure Lengths Indirectly And By Iterating Length Units.  
1.MD.1  Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object. 
1.MD.2  Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of samesize length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
1.MD.4  Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. 
Tell And Write Time.  
1.MD.3  Tell and write time in hours and halfhours using analog and digital clocks. 
2.MD: Measure And Estimate Lengths In Standard Units.  
2.MD.1  Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes. 
2.MD.2  Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. 
2.MD.3  Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. 
2.MD.4  Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit. 
Relate Addition And Subtraction To Length.  
2.MD.5  Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. 
2.MD.6  Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., and represent wholenumber sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
2.MD.10  Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with singleunit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put together, takeapart, and compare problems4 using information presented in a bar graph. 
2.MD.9  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in wholenumber units. 
Work With Time And Money.  
2.MD.7  Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m. 
2.MD.8  Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? 
3.MD: Geometric Measurement: Recognize Perimeter As An Attribute Of Plane Figures And Distinguish Between Linear And Area Measures.  
3.MD.8  Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Area And Relate Area To Multiplication And To Addition.  
3.MD.5  Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement. 
3.MD.5.a  A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area. 
3.MD.5.b  A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units. 
3.MD.6  Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units). 
3.MD.7  Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. 
3.MD.7.a  Find the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. 
3.MD.7.b  Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.c  Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with wholenumber side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning. 
3.MD.7.d  Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into nonoverlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
3.MD.3  Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one and twostep “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets. 
3.MD.4  Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units— whole numbers, halves, or quarters. 
Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Estimation Of Intervals Of Time, Liquid Volumes, And Masses Of Objects.  
3.MD.1  Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. 
3.MD.2  Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).6 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve onestep word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.7 
4.MD: Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Angle And Measure Angles.  
4.MD.5  Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement: 
4.MD.5.a  An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “onedegree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. 
4.MD.5.b  An angle that turns through n onedegree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. 
4.MD.6  Measure angles in wholenumber degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. 
4.MD.7  Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
4.MD.4  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. 
Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Conversion Of Measurements From A Larger Unit To A Smaller Unit.  
4.MD.1  Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... 
4.MD.2  Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. 
4.MD.3  Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. 
5.MD: Convert Like Measurement Units Within A Given Measurement System.  
5.MD.1  Convert among differentsized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multistep, real world problems. 
Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Volume And Relate Volume To Multiplication And To Addition.  
5.MD.3  Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement. 
5.MD.3.a  A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume. 
5.MD.3.b  A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units. 
5.MD.4  Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units. 
5.MD.5  Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. 
5.MD.5.a  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold wholenumber products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. 
5.MD.5.b  Apply the formulas V=l×w×handV=b×h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. 
5.MD.5.c  Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two nonoverlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the nonoverlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. 
Represent And Interpret Data.  
5.MD.2  Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. 
Number And Operations In Base Ten  
1.NBT: Extend The Counting Sequence.  
1.NBT.1  Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral. 
Understand Place Value.  
1.NBT.2  Understand that the two digits of a twodigit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
1.NBT.2.a  10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones — called a “ten.” b. 
1.NBT.2.b  The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones. 
1.NBT.2.c  The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones). 
1.NBT.3  Compare two twodigit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
1.NBT.4  Add within 100, including adding a twodigit number and a onedigit number, and adding a twodigit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding twodigit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten. 
1.NBT.5  Given a twodigit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. 
1.NBT.6  Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 1090 from multiples of 10 in the range 1090 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
2.NBT: Understand Place Value.  
2.NBT.1  Understand that the three digits of a threedigit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases: 
2.NBT.1.a  100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.” 
2.NBT.1.b  The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). 
2.NBT.2  Count within 1000; skipcount by 5s, 10s, and 100s. 
2.NBT.3  Read and write numbers to 1000 using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form. 
2.NBT.4  Compare two threedigit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract.  
2.NBT.5  Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
2.NBT.6  Add up to four twodigit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
2.NBT.7  Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. 
2.NBT.8  Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900. 
2.NBT.9  Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.3 
3.NBT: Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform MultiDigit Arithmetic.4  
3.NBT.1  Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. 
3.NBT.2  Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
3.NBT.3  Multiply onedigit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. 
5.NBT: Perform Operations With MultiDigit Whole Numbers And With Decimals To Hundredths.  
5.NBT.5  Fluently multiply multidigit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 
5.NBT.6  Find wholenumber quotients of whole numbers with up to fourdigit dividends and twodigit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. 
5.NBT.7  Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. 
Understand The Place Value System.  
5.NBT.1  Recognize that in a multidigit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left. 
5.NBT.2  Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use wholenumber exponents to denote powers of 10. 
5.NBT.3  Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. 
5.NBT.3.a  Read and write decimals to thousandths using baseten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 × 100 + 4 × 10 + 7 × 1 + 3 × (1/10) + 9 × (1/100) + 2 × (1/1000). 
5.NBT.3.b  Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. 
5.NBT.4  Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place. 
Number And Operations—Fractions  
5.NF: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Multiplication And Division To Multiply And Divide Fractions.  
5.NF.3  Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
5.NF.4  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. 
5.NF.4.a  Interpret the product (a/b) × q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a × q ÷ b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) × (c/d) = ac/bd.) 
5.NF.4.b  Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 
5.NF.5  Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by: 
5.NF.5.a  Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. 
5.NF.5.b  Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1. 
5.NF.6  Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. 
5.NF.7  Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.1 
5.NF.7.a  Interpret division of a unit fraction by a nonzero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3. 
5.NF.7.b  Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4. 
5.NF.7.c  Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by nonzero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins? 
Use Equivalent Fractions As A Strategy To Add And Subtract Fractions.  
5.NF.1  Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.) 
5.NF.2  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions 
4.NF: Build Fractions From Unit Fractions By Applying And Extending Previous Understandings Of Operations On Whole Numbers.  
4.NF.3  Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. a. 
4.NF.3.a  Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. 
4.NF.3.b  Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. 
4.NF.3.c  Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. 
4.NF.3.d  Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. 
4.NF.4  Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. 
4.NF.4.a  Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4). 
4.NF.4.b  Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.) 
4.NF.4.c  Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 
Extend Understanding Of Fraction Equivalence And Ordering.  
4.NF.1  Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. 
4.NF.2  Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
Understand Decimal Notation For Fractions, And Compare Decimal Fractions.  
4.NF.5  Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.4 For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. 
4.NF.6  Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. 
4.NF.7  Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. 
3.NF: Develop Understanding Of Fractions As Numbers.  
3.NF.1  Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. 
3.NF.2  Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. 
3.NF.2.a  Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. 
3.NF.2.b  Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. 
3.NF.3  Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. 
3.NF.3.a  Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. 
3.NF.3.b  Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
3.NF.3.c  Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram. 
3.NF.3.d  Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. 
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