# Next Generation Science Standards Explorer

Are you a STEM, STEAM, and/or science teacher looking for great edtech for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)? Browse hundreds of apps, games, and websites evaluated by our expert reviewers and tagged for relevant Performance Expectations (PEs).

To find the right tool for your NGSS-aligned activities, lessons, and curriculum: select a grade, choose a topic, and then find the PE that interests you. Click the green arrow on the right-hand side of the PE to see a list of suggested tools. Just below each PE you'll see three NGSS dimensions – Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), and Crosscutting Concepts (CC) – for quick and easy reference.

## Energy

MS-PS3: Energy
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
MS-PS3-1
Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.
17
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A
Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.
MS-PS3-2
Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.
15
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A
A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions.
PS3.C
When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions – such as inputs, processes, and outputs – and energy and matter flows within systems.
MS-PS3-3
Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
13
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific ideas or principles to design, construct, and test a design of an object, tool, process or system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.A
The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that
PS3.A
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B
Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.
MS-PS3-4
Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
10
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present.
PS3.B
The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes.
MS-PS3-5
Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
26
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Construct, use, and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B
When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion).

## Matter and Its Interactions

MS-PS1: Matter and Its Interactions
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
MS-PS1-1
Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
23
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.
MS-PS1-2
Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
18
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
PS1.B
Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure.
MS-PS1-3
Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
13
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it.
PS1.B
Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Structure and Function
Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.
MS-PS1-4
Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
19
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other.
PS3.A
The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
MS-PS1-5
Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
12
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.B
Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes.
MS-PS1-6
Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
8
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Undertake a design project, engaging in the design cycle, to construct and/or implement a solution that meets specific design criteria and constraints.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.B
A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it.
ETS1.C
Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of the characteristics may be incorpora
PS1.B
Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

## Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
MS-PS2-1
Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
33
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific ideas or principles to design an object, tool, process or system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A
For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems.
MS-PS2-2
Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
29
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A
The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For a
Show Crosscutting Concept
Stability and Change
Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and forces at different scales.
MS-PS2-3
Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
20
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis based on observations and scientific principles.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B
Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.
MS-PS2-4
Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
18
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Construct and present oral and written arguments supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B
Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass—e.g., Earth and the sun.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems.
MS-PS2-5
Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
15
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that can meet the goals of the investigation.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B
Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively).
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

## Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

MS-PS4: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
MS-PS4-1
Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
18
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A
A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data.
MS-PS4-2
Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
21
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A
A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted.
PS4.B
When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Structure and Function
Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used.
MS-PS4-3
Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.
12
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.C
Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Structure and Function
Structures can be designed to serve particular functions.