# Next Generation Science Standards Explorer

Are you a STEM, STEAM, and/or science teacher looking for great edtech for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)? Browse hundreds of apps, games, and websites evaluated by our expert reviewers and tagged for relevant Performance Expectations (PEs).

To find the right tool for your NGSS-aligned activities, lessons, and curriculum: select a grade, choose a topic, and then find the PE that interests you. Click the green arrow on the right-hand side of the PE to see a list of suggested tools. Just below each PE you'll see three NGSS dimensions – Science and Engineering Practices (SEP), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCI), and Crosscutting Concepts (CC) – for quick and easy reference.

## Energy

HS-PS3: Energy
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
HS-PS3-1
Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
8
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A
Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved, even as, with
PS3.B
Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models.
HS-PS3-2
Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects).
19
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A
Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved, even as, with
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
Energy cannot be created or destroyed—only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.
HS-PS3-3
Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.
15
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Design, evaluate, and/or refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.A
Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meet
PS3.A
At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy.
PS3.D
Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms—for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
HS-PS3-4
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).
7
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.B
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems.
PS3.D
Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms—for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined and their inputs and outputs analyzed and described using models.
HS-PS3-5
Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.
12
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.C
When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.

## Matter and Its Interactions

HS-PS1: Matter and Its Interactions
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
HS-PS1-1
Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
22
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
HS-PS1-2
Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
17
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.
PS1.B
The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
HS-PS1-3
Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
6
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
HS-PS1-4
Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
7
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart.
PS1.B
Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the s
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
HS-PS1-5
Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
14
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation of phenomena and solve design problems, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.B
Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the s
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
HS-PS1-6
Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.
9
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Refine a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.C
Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed.
PS1.A
The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
PS1.B
In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Stability and Change
Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable.
HS-PS1-7
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
13
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical representations of phenomena to support claims.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.B
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
The total amount of energy and matter in closed systems is conserved.
HS-PS1-8
Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.
8
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Developing and Using Models
Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.C
Nuclear processes, including fusion, fission, and radioactive decays of unstable nuclei, involve release or absorption of energy. The total number of neutrons plus protons does not change in any nuclear process.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Energy and Matter
In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved.

## Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
HS-PS2-1
Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
31
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze data using tools, technologies, and/or models (e.g., computational, mathematical) in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims or determine an optimal design solution.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A
Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects.
PS2.B
Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
HS-PS2-2
Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
18
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A
Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
When investigating or describing a system, the boundaries and initial conditions of the system need to be defined.
HS-PS2-3
Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
15
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Apply scientific ideas to solve a design problem, taking into account possible unanticipated effects.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.A
Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meet
ETS1.C
Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.
PS2.A
If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system.
PS2.B
Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect.
HS-PS2-4
Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects.
19
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical representations of phenomena to describe explanations.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B
Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law provide the mathematical models to describe and predict the effects of gravitational and electrostatic forces between distant objects.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Patterns
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
HS-PS2-5
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.
11
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.B
Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric f
PS3.A
“Electrical energy” may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electric currents.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
HS-PS2-6
Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.
6
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Communicate scientific and technical information (e.g. about the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A
The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms.
PS2.B
Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Structure and Function
Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem.

## Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

HS-PS4: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Number Performance Expectation Products New Window
HS-PS4-1
Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
17
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Use mathematical representations of phenomena or design solutions to describe and/or support claims and/or explanations.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A
The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.
HS-PS4-2
Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information.
6
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Evaluate questions that challenge the premise(s) of an argument, the interpretation of a data set, or the suitability of a design.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A
Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses.
Show Crosscutting Concept
Stability and Change
Systems can be designed for greater or lesser stability.
HS-PS4-3
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.
9
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A
Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other. (Boundary: The discussion at this grade level is qualitative only;
PS4.B
Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the partic
Show Crosscutting Concept
Systems and System Models
Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions— including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.
HS-PS4-4
Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.
6
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Evaluate the validity and reliability of multiple claims that appear in scientific and technical texts or media reports, verifying the data when possible.
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.B
When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to livi
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
HS-PS4-5
Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.
15
Show Science and Engineering Practice
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Communicate technical information or ideas (e.g. about phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (including orally, graphically, textually, and mathematically).
Show Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.D
Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun’s energy and produce electrical energy.
PS4.A
Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses.
PS4.B
Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency.
PS4.C
Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications, scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for pr
Show Crosscutting Concept
Cause and Effect
Systems can be designed to cause a desired effect.