Writing 
W.7: Production and Distribution of Writing 
W.7.4  Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Gradespecific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 

W.7.5  With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 

W.7.6  Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. 
Range of Writing 
W.7.10  Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 
Research to Build and Present Knowledge 
W.7.7  Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation. 

W.7.8  Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 

W.7.9  Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 

W.7.9a  Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”). 

W.7.9b  Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”). 
Text Types and Purposes 
W.7.1  Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. 

W.7.1a  Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. 

W.7.1b  Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. 

W.7.1c  Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. 

W.7.1d  Establish and maintain a formal style. 

W.7.1e  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. 

W.7.2  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. 

W.7.2a  Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. 

W.7.2b  Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. 

W.7.2c  Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. 

W.7.2d  Use precise language and domainspecific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 

W.7.2e  Establish and maintain a formal style. 

W.7.2f  Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. 

W.7.3  Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and wellstructured event sequences. 

W.7.3a  Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. 

W.7.3b  Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters. 

W.7.3c  Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. 

W.7.3d  Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. 

W.7.3e  Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. 
Statistics And Probability 
6.SP: Develop Understanding Of Statistical Variability. 
6.SP.1  Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 

6.SP.2  Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 

6.SP.3  Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. 
Summarize And Describe Distributions. 
6.SP.4  Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. 

6.SP.5  Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: 

6.SP.5.a  Reporting the number of observations. 

6.SP.5.b  Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. 

6.SP.5.c  Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. 

6.SP.5.d  Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered. 
7.SP: Draw Informal Comparative Inferences About Two Populations. 
7.SP.3  Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. 

7.SP.4  Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. 
Investigate Chance Processes And Develop, Use, And Evaluate Probability Models. 
7.SP.5  Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. 

7.SP.6  Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its longrun relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 

7.SP.7  Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. 

7.SP.7.a  Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. 

7.SP.7.b  Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? 

7.SP.8  Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. 

7.SP.8.a  Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. 

7.SP.8.b  Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. 

7.SP.8.c  Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? 
Use Random Sampling To Draw Inferences About A Population. 
7.SP.1  Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 

7.SP.2  Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. 
8.SP: Investigate Patterns Of Association In Bivariate Data. 
8.SP.1  Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 

8.SP.2  Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 

8.SP.3  Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 

8.SP.4  Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a twoway table. Construct and interpret a twoway table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? 