Reading and Interpreting Seismograph Data
1 How do We Measure Earthquakes?
Danielson Framework Domain1: Planning and Preparation. 1b Knowledge of Students.
The teacher knows that 6th grade students need excitement in the classroom so she shows a video of a devastating earthquake to hook the students interest in the subject.
The teacher realizes that not all students are kinesthetic learners that can easily understand now machines work. The teacher will show the students an informational video about how a seismograph works before introducing them to a physical model.
2 Using a Seismograph and Data Collection
Danielson Framework Domain 2: Classroom Environment. 2c Managing Classroom Procedures
The teacher The teacher will break the students into manageable lab groups and instruct the students to bang on their desks near the model seismographs in order to generate "earthquake data" so they can model the effects of distance, direction, and force on earthquake readings. The teacher will ensure that each student takes a turn banging and reading the data.
Use your model seismograph to generate "earthquake data" . How can you change the distance, direction, and force of the waves generated by your "earthquake"?
3 What Do All These Squiggles Mean? Learning How To Read a Seismogram
Danielson Framework Domain 3: Instruction 3a Communicating with Students
The teacher will use examples from the website to help explain the content to students. She will utilize online resources to help the students learn how to interpret a real seismograph generated by an earthquake.
Use the examples on the website to help you read the seismogram from the 1964 earthquake in Alaska.
4 Interpreting a Real Seismogram
Danielson Framework Domain 3: Instruction 3c Engage Students in Learning
The teacher will give the students an authentic seismogram generated from a historic earthquake for them to use in relating information about earthquake waves to real events. The teacher will help the students interpret the seismogram data from the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Help them determine the location on the graph and the actual arrival time of P waves, S waves, and surface waves using the seismogram.
Look at this real seismogram and determine when the first P waves, S waves, and surface waves arrived at the Bellingham, WA station that this seismogram was recorded at.
5 Interpreting a Real Seismogram Continued
Danielson Framework Domain 3: Instruction 3d Assessment in Instruction
The teacher uses formative assessment to ensure that the students are learning during instructional time. The teacher creates a worksheet for the students to complete as a short homework assignment out of class to show that they learned how to identify P waves, S waves, and surface waves on a seismogram.
Complete the homework assignment using data provided by the teacher. Make sure you know how to determine the locaiton of P waves, S waves, and surface waves on a seismogram.
Key Standards Supported
|2-ESS2-1||Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land.|
|2-ESS2-2||Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.|
|2-ESS2-3||Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid.|
|3-ESS2-1||Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.|
|3-ESS2-2||Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.|
|4-ESS2-1||Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.|
|4-ESS2-2||Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.|
|5-ESS2-1||Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.|
|5-ESS2-2||Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.|
|HS-ESS2-1||Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.|
|HS-ESS2-2||Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth systems.|
|HS-ESS2-3||Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.|
|HS-ESS2-4||Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth's systems result in changes in climate.|
|HS-ESS2-5||Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.|
|HS-ESS2-6||Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.|
|HS-ESS2-7||Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth's systems and life on Earth.|
|K-ESS2-1||Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.|
|K-ESS2-2||Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.|
|MS-ESS2-1||Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.|
|MS-ESS2-2||Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales.|
|MS-ESS2-3||Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.|
|MS-ESS2-4||Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.|
|MS-ESS2-5||Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.|
|MS-ESS2-6||Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.|
Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
|1-PS4-1||Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.|
|1-PS4-2||Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that objects can be seen only when illuminated.|
|1-PS4-3||Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.|
|1-PS4-4||Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.|
|4-PS4-1||Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.|
|4-PS4-2||Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.|
|4-PS4-3||Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.|
|HS-PS4-1||Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.|
|HS-PS4-2||Evaluate questions about the advantages of using a digital transmission and storage of information.|
|HS-PS4-3||Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.|
|HS-PS4-4||Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.|
|HS-PS4-5||Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy.|
|MS-PS4-1||Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.|
|MS-PS4-2||Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.|
|MS-PS4-3||Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals.|