Introduction To Fractions
1 Engage - YouTube Video
Before showing the video ask students the following questions:
1. Have you ever had to share something? Then invite them to discuss items they have had to share with someone.
2. When you shared your items, did you have to separate them in any way?
3. What is a fraction? Or What do you think a fraction is?
After showing the video, ask the following questions:
1. What was the boy in the video so frustrated about?
2. How did he solve the problem?
Each student will need to have their own IPad for this activity. Students will start on level 1 of the game. The teacher will give instructions on how to play the first level then allow 10-15 minutes for gameplay.
The first level is about creating equal parts. Look at the pictures of the fruit that is sliced into different parts. Decide if the parts are equal (same shape and size) or not. If they are equal click on the green equal sign and place it next to the fruit. If they are not equal, click the red unequal sign and place it next to the fruit.
3 Explain - Dancing Activity Adapted from https://www.weareteachers.com/fun-with-fractions-7-tactile-and-kinesthetic-games/)] Combined with White/Blackboard demonstration of Fraction Circles.]
Give each student a large piece of plain white butcher paper (20x30 in size), 1 red crayon, 1 blue crayon, 1 green crayon, and 1 black crayon. Have them fold the paper in half 3 times. When they open it up it should be sectioned into 8 parts. (Demonstrate if necessary). When they are done folding ask the following questions:
How many pieces of paper did I give you?
How many sections of the piece of paper do you see after folding it?
Instruct them to color 1 of the sections red, 2 of the sections blue, 3 of the sections green and 2 of the sections black. When they are done coloring have them stand on the paper and tell them to get ready to dance! As the music is playing the teacher will call out commands (similar to the game “Twister”). For example “Dance on the green squares” “Now dance on the blue squares”. When the kids have gotten their wiggles out, turn off the music but still have them stand on their paper.
Repeat the commands without the music. This time as they stand on the colors, explain what fraction of the paper they are standing on. For example, after calling out the color green, say, “you are now standing on 3/8 of your paper. Call out several combinations until you feel that they are grasping the concept. Allow them to ask questions if they want to. Students can sit back down once dance activity is over.
The teacher will then use Fraction circles (magnets) on the Black/Whiteboard to go into a more in-depth explanation of parts and wholes while identifying the numerator and denominator. Teacher will point out that as the denominator gets bigger the number value of the fraction gets smaller (refer to the size of the sections of dance paper) Teacher will also explain how to write the numerical representation of the fractions as the fraction circles are posted on the board
4 Elaborate - Favorite Flavor Ice-Cream
Divide students into groups of 4, 6, or 8 depending on the size of the class. Assign each group a number and write the group numbers on the board. (See student instructions for further explanation of ice cream activity.)
In their groups, students will ask each other about their favorite flavor of ice cream and given the choices of strawberry, vanilla, or chocolate. They can then take that data and determine what fraction of the group likes strawberry, which fraction likes chocolate and so on. Each group will share their results with the class and a representative of the group will write the numerical representation of the fraction underneath their group number on the board.
5 Evaluate - Fraction Museum- Adapted from YouTube- Scholastic video June 14, 2010
Provide each student with a bag of manipulatives in various colors. They can either link together like math link cubes or brain flakes by VIAHART, or you can also use building blocks and counting bears. Then give them note cards or some type of paper or card stock to create signs for their exhibits.
Cut up small sheets of paper for classmates to write their responses on when visiting the exhibits. Provide small containers/baskets for each exhibit.
Students will use the manipulatives to create symbols of fractions. For example, they can connect one blue block to three white blocks to represent 1/3. Students will write a question mark on the front of the card for each of their exhibits and the numerical representation of the fraction they are exhibiting on the back. If the sign is folded like a card they can write the fraction on the inside of the card and the question mark on the outside. Students must create 3 exhibits.
Visit classmates exhibits and guess the fractions by writing your name and your response on small sheets of paper. Fold paper and place it in containers next to the exhibits.
Key Standards Supported
Number And Operations—Fractions
Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.