To engage the students, ask the following questions:
1. What are the 4 nucleotide bases of RNA?
2. How do cells transcribe DNA into RNA?
3. A Spanish translator takes English sentences and changes them into Spanish sentences. Knowing this, how do you think translation happens to make proteins?
Since my school has 1:1 iPad program, students are able to answer the posted questions in the Notability app, and they may post them to that day's bell ringer assignment on eBackpack. This enables the students to review the previous lesson's content (Transcription), focus on today's upcoming content (Translation), and receive timely feedback from the teacher.
2 DIRECT INSTRUCTION
Nearpod is used for Direct Instruction to display the presentation onto the 1:1 iPads. The teacher can monitor if the students are in the Nearpod app or elsewhere to assist with classroom management. Students are permitted to leave Nearpod to use Notability for writing summaries.
1. 3 Types of RNA
ii. The message to be translated
iii. Extended Wait Time - 60 seconds - How does mRNA function as the messenger?
ii. The ribosome reads the mRNA
iii. Extended Wait Time - 60 seconds - How does rRNA function as the reader?
ii. The vehicle for amino acids
iii. Extended Wait Time - 60 seconds - How does tRNA put the correct amino acid in forming chain?
d. Summary - 90 seconds - What are the 3 types of RNA, and what do the first letters stand for?
2. The 3 types work together to translate.
a. mRNA feeds through the rRNA.
b. tRNA carries an amino acid for a specific anticodon.
i. Anticodon is a sequence of 3 nucleotides
ii. Extended Wait Time - 90 seconds - If there is an anticodon, what else must there be?
c. rRNA matches the anticodon of the tRNA to the codon of the mRNA.
d. Summary - 240 seconds - Using exactly 30 words, how do the 3 types of RNA work together?
3. Reading codons in the Genetic Code
a. 3 nucleotide in every codon
b. Genetic Code works off of the 3 letters
c. Reading the Genetic Codon for specific codons
d. Summary - 120 seconds - How do you read the Genetic Code for DNA translation?
3 GUIDED PRACTICE
Students will work in small groups (2-3) to translate for 3 peptide chains. These peptide chains will be posted on eBackpack. The pdf. will be available to download from eBackpack to Notability. In Notability, the students will be able to translate for the 3 peptide chains:
#1 - The students will have a strand of RNA that is divided into codons. The students will use the Genetic Code to translate the nucleotides into amino acids. The correct translation will be available to view on eBackpack.
#2 - The students will have a strand of RNA that is not divided into codons. The students will need to identify the "start" codon and the "stop" codon. Then, the students will translate into amino acids. The correct translation will be available to view on eBackpack.
#3 - The student will have a strand of DNA. They will need to transcribe the DNa into RNA, identify the "start" and "stop" codons, and translate the RNA into a peptide chain. The correct translation will be available to view on eBackpack.
The students will cooperatively work on this guided practice to actively translate DNA. It will be a scaffolded process that builds in complexity. The teacher should also move about the room to help groups that need assistance in the translation process.
4 INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
Students will work independently to on a Socrative quiz. The quiz will not be graded, but it will be used as a completed/participation grade. The quiz will give the student RNA and DNA sequences, and it will offer multiple choices for the correct peptide chain. This quiz will provide the teacher with the comprehension of the students, and the quiz will give the students immediate feedback.
Students will work independently to demonstrate their ability to create an amino acid chain from DNA. The student will download from eBackpack to Notability a file with 10 DNA sequences. These sequences will increase in length in the assignment. The student will transcribe and translate the DNA sequences to create 10 peptide chains. When finished, the student will submit the Notability document to the eBackpack assignment. If not finished in class, the student will finish outside of class, which can be done due to the 1:1 iPad program.
Key Standards Supported
From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.