Argumentative Writing (Ethos, Pathos, Logos)
1 Hook/Attention Getter
2 Direct Instruction
Show students examples, explanations, and definitions of the three main modes of persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos. This prezi is a great place to begin.
The prezi above also contains five examples to use as formative assessment at the end. If your students have online access, create a Kahoot! to check their understanding.
3 Independent Practice
Students will use ethos, pathos, and logos to convince their class to donate to a specific charity.
Ask students to remember the ASPCA and the World Vision commercials from the youtube playlist in my hook. What makes those ads effective? What charity would they rather give money? What causes matter to them?
Students will often have good luck finding ethos and pathos reasons on the website of the specific charity. Referring to a site such as Charity Navigator can help them build the ethos and logos even more.
Students should use an online organizer (like Evernote) to keep track of their research and organize an outline.
4 Independent Practice
Students will create a speech to convince the class to donate to a specific charity. I have had students donate while we work on the project. I promise to match the funds they raise (within certain limits).
Students use prezi to create a presentation to convince their peers.
Some students suffer from anxiety disorders that prevent them from speaking in front of class, but they still feel passionately about their cause. These students are given the option to create a video presentation on wevideo. This digital exhortation is often nicer than the in-class speech.
Students will have closure on this project after they choose a charity to receive their donations. I have students vote on Poll Everywhere because they can do it from any phone with SMS (text) capabilities. No smart phones required. They can also vote online.
For extra fun, I created a jumbo check as seen on TV.
Key Standards Supported
Speaking & Listening
|SL.11-12: Comprehension and Collaboration|
|SL.11-12.2||Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.|
|SL.11-12.3||Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.|
|Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas|
|SL.11-12.4||Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.|
|SL.11-12.5||Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.|
|SL.11-12.6||Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.|
|W.11-12: Text Types and Purposes|
|W.11-12.1||Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.|
|W.11-12.1a||Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.|
|W.11-12.1b||Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.|
|W.11-12.1c||Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.|
|W.11-12.1d||Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.|
|W.11-12.1e||Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.|
|Production and Distribution of Writing|
|W.11-12.5||Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.|
|W.11-12.6||Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.|
|Research to Build and Present Knowledge|
|W.11-12.7||Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.|
|W.11-12.8||Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.|
|Range of Writing|
|W.11-12.10||Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes|