# DimensionU

*Not Yet Rated*

- phonics
- reading
- vocabulary
- writing

- algebra
- equations
- geometry
- numbers

- teamwork

- strategy
- thinking critically

###### Pros

Fast-paced multiplayer gaming gives kids a fun way to review concepts together.###### Cons

At its heart, this is basically a multiple choice quiz with game elements layered on top.###### Bottom Line

DimensionU is a fun way for kids to review basic concepts, but there are other opportunities to get the same practice for free.Receive frequent progress reports via email

Playing with peers should keep kids interested for a bit, but the games themselves aren't inventive.

Covers tons of content, but it's taught through multiple choice questions and not baked-into play.

The website is supportive and instructions precede each game, but there's no way for a slow reader to pause the instructions before they leave the screen.

*DimensionU* lends itself to practice and homework after a lesson, or as a skills brush-up. Teachers can keep tabs on their class' progress through reporting tools like emails, a teacher dashboard, progress reports, etc.. If everyone in a class has the game, it could be fun to organize class tournaments and competitions, and would help get students to play on their own time as well. As an extension activity, teachers might also challenge students to think of their own low-tech games that cover similar concepts as *DimensionU*.

*DimensionU* is a collection of four games -- single or multiplayer -- that feature practice problems reviewing a variety of Common Core (CCSS) Math and ELA concepts:

- In
*Meltdown*, students try to collect colored balls in sequence before time runs out. Each ball gives them a shot at answering subsequent multiple choice questions. Both balls and correct answers award points. - In
*Swarm*, students work with teammates to capture "nodes" by answering questions correctly. Playing with others definitely increases speed and engagement. - In
*Tower Storm*, students earn balls by answer multiple choice questions. They then throw the ball through matching hoops to create a tower. - In
*Velocity*, kids answer questions to earn items like jet packs or super jumps then use these abilities to compete in a race. This is probably the most fun of the games, and also the one that covers the least amount of content.

*DimensionU* covers a huge number of CCSS outcomes. It does offer "codes" -- chunks of text teaching concepts -- but students are unlikely to use them, so it works best as a review game. Following the traditional edutainment model, the game elements are often at odds with the multiple choice style review questions. So playing the game is something that precedes or directly follows doing the practice problems rather than the two being fully intertwined. It's more fun than a worksheet, and should encourage students who don't normally enjoy (or do) homework to spend some voluntary time on review. But it's not a compelling enough mixture of playful activity and learning to make it a great standalone learning tool for students to explore and dig deep into concepts.

## Key Standards Supported

## Language | |

L.2: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.2.1d | Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). |

L.2.1e | Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. |

L.2.1f | Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy). |

L.2.2 | Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. |

L.2.2a | Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. |

L.2.2b | Use commas in greetings and closings of letters. |

L.2.2c | Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. |

L.2.2d | Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil). |

L.2.2e | Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.2.4b | Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell). |

L.2.4c | Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional). |

L.3: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.3.1a | Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. |

L.3.1b | Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. |

L.3.1g | Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. |

L.3.2a | Capitalize appropriate words in titles. |

L.3.2b | Use commas in addresses. |

L.3.2f | Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words. |

L.3.2g | Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.3.4b | Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat). |

L.3.4c | Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion). |

L.3.5a | Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps). |

L.3.6 | Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). |

L.4: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.4.1b | Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses. |

L.4.1d | Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag). |

L.4.1e | Form and use prepositional phrases. |

L.4.1f | Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.* |

L.4.2a | Use correct capitalization. |

L.4.2b | Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. |

L.4.2d | Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.4.4a | Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.4.4b | Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph). |

L.4.4c | Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. |

L.4.5a | Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context. |

L.4.5b | Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. |

L.4.5c | Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). |

L.4.6 | Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). |

L.5: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.5.1 | Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. |

L.5.2 | Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. |

Knowledge of Language | |

L.5.3a | Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. |

Vocabulary acquisition and Use | |

L.5.4a | Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.5.4b | Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis). |

L.5.4c | Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. |

L.5.5a | Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context. |

L.5.5b | Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. |

L.5.5c | Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. |

L.6: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.6.1.B | Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). |

L.6.1.D | Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). |

L.6.2.B | Spell correctly. |

Knowledge of Language | |

L.6.3.A | Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style. |

L.6.3.B | Maintain consistency in style and tone. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.6.4.A | Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.6.4.B | Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible). |

L.6.4.C | Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. |

L.6.4.D | Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). |

L.6.5.B | Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words. |

L.6.5.C | Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty). |

L.6.6 | Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. |

L.7: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.7.1a | Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences. |

L.7.1b | Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas. |

L.7.2a | Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt). |

L.7.2b | Spell correctly. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.7.4a | Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.7.4b | Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel). |

L.7.4c | Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. |

L.7.5b | Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words. |

L.7.5c | Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending). |

L.7.6 | Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. |

L.8: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.8.1a | Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. |

L.8.1b | Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. |

L.8.1c | Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood. |

L.8.1d | Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.* |

L.8.2a | Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break. |

L.8.2b | Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. |

L.8.2c | Spell correctly. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.8.4a | Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.8.4b | Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). |

L.8.4c | Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. |

L.8.5b | Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. |

L.8.5c | Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute). |

L.8.6 | Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. |

L.9-10: Conventions of Standard English | |

L.9-10.1a | Use parallel structure.* |

L.9-10.1b | Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. |

L.9-10.2a | Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. |

L.9-10.2c | Spell correctly. |

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use | |

L.9-10.4a | Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. |

L.9-10.4b | Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy). |

L.9-10.4c | Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology. |

L.9-10.5a | Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text. |

L.9-10.6 | Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. |

## Reading Foundational Skills | |

RF.2: Phonics and Word recognition | |

RF.2.3 | Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. |

RF.2.3b | Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. |

RF.2.3d | Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. |

RF.3: Fluency | |

RF.3.4a | Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. |

RF.3.4c | Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. |

RF.4: Fluency | |

RF.4.4a | Read on-level text with purpose and understanding. |

RF.4.4c | Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. |

## Reading Informational | |

RI.4: Craft and Structure | |

RI.4.5 | Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RI.4.1 | Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. |

RI.4.2 | Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. |

RI.6: Craft and Structure | |

RI.6.4 | Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. |

RI.6.6 | Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RI.6.1 | Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RI.6.2 | Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. |

RI.6.3 | Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). |

RI.7: Craft and Structure | |

RI.7.4 | Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. |

RI.7.5 | Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. |

RI.7.6 | Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. |

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas | |

RI.7.7 | Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). |

RI.7.9 | Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RI.7.1 | Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RI.7.2 | Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. |

RI.7.3 | Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). |

RI.8: Craft and Structure | |

RI.8.4 | Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. |

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas | |

RI.8.7 | Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RI.8.1 | Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RI.8.2 | Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. |

RI.8.3 | Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). |

RI.9-10: Craft and Structure | |

RI.9-10.4 | Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). |

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas | |

RI.9-10.7 | Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RI.9-10.1 | Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RI.9-10.2 | Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. |

RI.9-10.3 | Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. |

## Reading Literature | |

RL.3: Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.3.2 | Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. |

RL.3.3 | Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. |

RL.4: Craft and Structure | |

RL.4.6 | Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.4.1 | Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. |

RL.4.2 | Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. |

RL.6: Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.6.2 | Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. |

RL.7: Craft and Structure | |

RL.7.4 | Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. |

Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.7.1 | Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RL.7.2 | Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. |

RL.7.3 | Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). |

RL.8: Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.8.1 | Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RL.8.2 | Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. |

RL.9-10: Key Ideas and Details | |

RL.9-10.1 | Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. |

RL.9-10.2 | Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. |

## Speaking & Listening | |

SL.2: Comprehension and Collaboration | |

SL.2.1 | Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. |

SL.2.1a | Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). |

SL.2.1b | Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. |

SL.2.1c | Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion. |

SL.2.2 | Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. |

SL.2.3 | Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. |

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas | |

SL.2.4 | Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. |

SL.2.5 | Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. |

SL.2.6 | Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. |

## Writing | |

W.2: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.2.5 | With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. |

W.3: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.3.4 | With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.3.5 | With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. |

W.3.6 | With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. |

Range of Writing | |

W.3.10 | Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. |

Research to Build and Present Knowledge | |

W.3.7 | Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. |

W.3.8 | Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. |

W.3.9 | (Begins in grade 4) |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.3.1 | Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. |

W.3.1a | Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. |

W.3.1b | Provide reasons that support the opinion. |

W.3.1c | Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. |

W.3.1d | Provide a concluding statement or section. |

W.3.2 | Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. |

W.3.2a | Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. |

W.3.2b | Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. |

W.3.2c | Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. |

W.3.2d | Provide a concluding statement or section. |

W.3.3 | Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. |

W.3.3a | Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. |

W.3.3b | Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. |

W.3.3c | Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. |

W.3.3d | Provide a sense of closure. |

W.4: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.4.4 | Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.4.5 | With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.4.1a | Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. |

W.4.2b | Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. |

W.4.2c | Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). |

W.4.3a | Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. |

W.4.3c | Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. |

W.4.3d | Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. |

W.5: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.5.4 | Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.5.5 | With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.5.2c | Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially). |

W.5.3a | Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. |

W.5.3d | Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. |

W.6: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.6.4 | Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.6.5 | With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.6.1 | Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. |

W.6.2a | Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. |

W.6.2b | Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. |

W.6.2c | Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. |

W.6.3a | Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. |

W.6.3c | Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. |

W.6.3d | Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events. |

W.7: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.7.4 | Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.7.5 | With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. |

W.7.6 | Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.7.1a | Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. |

W.7.1c | Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. |

W.7.2a | Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. |

W.7.2b | Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. |

W.7.2c | Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. |

W.7.3a | Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. |

W.7.3c | Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. |

W.8: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.8.4 | Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) |

W.8.5 | With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.8.1a | Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. |

W.8.1c | Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. |

W.8.2a | Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. |

W.8.2b | Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples. |

W.8.2c | Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. |

W.8.3a | Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. |

W.8.3c | Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. |

W.8.3d | Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. |

W.9-10: Production and Distribution of Writing | |

W.9-10.4 | |

W.9-10.5 | Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. |

Text Types and Purposes | |

W.9-10.1a | Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence. |

W.9-10.1c | Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims. |

W.9-10.2a | Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. |

W.9-10.2c | Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. |

W.9-10.3a | Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events. |

W.9-10.3c | Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole. |

## Arithmetic With Polynomials And Rational Expressions | |

HSA.APR: Perform Arithmetic Operations On Polynomials | |

HSA.APR.1 | Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. |

Rewrite Rational Expressions | |

HSA.APR.7 | (+) Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. |

Use Polynomial Identities To Solve Problems | |

HSA.APR.4 | Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships. For example, the polynomial identity (x2 + y2)2 = (x2 – y2)2 + (2xy)2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. |

## Building Functions | |

HSF.BF: Build New Functions From Existing Functions | |

HSF.BF.5 | (+) Understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents. |

## Circles | |

HSG.C: Find Arc Lengths And Areas Of Sectors Of Circles | |

HSG.C.5 | Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector. |

## Conditional Probability And The Rules Of Probability | |

HSS.CP: Understand Independence And Conditional Probability And Use Them To Interpret Data | |

HSS.CP.3 | Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. |

HSS.CP.4 | Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities. For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results. |

HSS.CP.5 | Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer. |

Use The Rules Of Probability To Compute Probabilities Of Compound Events In A Uniform Probability Model | |

HSS.CP.6 | Find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model. |

## Creating Equations | |

HSA.CED: Create Equations That Describe Numbers Or Relationships | |

HSA.CED.2 | Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. |

HSA.CED.3 | Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or non- viable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. |

## Expressions And Equations | |

6.EE: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Arithmetic To Algebraic Expressions. | |

6.EE.1 | Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents. |

6.EE.2.a | Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y. |

6.EE.2.b | Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. |

6.EE.2.c | Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole- number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. |

6.EE.4 | Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. |

Reason About And Solve One-Variable Equations And Inequalities. | |

6.EE.5 | Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. |

6.EE.6 | Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. |

6.EE.7 | Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. |

6.EE.8 | Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. |

Represent And Analyze Quantitative Relationships Between Dependent And Independent Variables. | |

6.EE.9 | Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time. |

7.EE: Solve Real-Life And Mathematical Problems Using Numerical And Algebraic Expressions And Equations. | |

7.EE.3 | Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. |

7.EE.4.a | Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width? |

8.EE: Analyze And Solve Linear Equations And Pairs Of Simultaneous Linear Equations. | |

8.EE.7.a | Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). |

8.EE.7.b | Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. |

8.EE.8.a | Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. |

8.EE.8.b | Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. |

8.EE.8.c | Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. |

Understand The Connections Between Proportional Relationships, Lines, And Linear Equations. | |

8.EE.6 | Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. |

Work With Radicals And Integer Exponents. | |

8.EE.1 | Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3–5 = 3–3 = 1/33 = 1/27. |

8.EE.2 | Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x2 = p and x3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational. |

## Functions | |

8.F: Define, Evaluate, And Compare Functions. | |

8.F.1 | Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1 |

8.F.2 | Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. |

8.F.3 | Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. |

Use Functions To Model Relationships Between Quantities. | |

8.F.4 | Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. |

8.F.5 | Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. |

## Geometric Measurement And Dimension | |

HSG.GMD: Explain Volume Formulas And Use Them To Solve Problems | |

HSG.GMD.3 | Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.★ |

## Geometry | |

2.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes. | |

2.G.1 | Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces.5 Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. |

3.G: Reason With Shapes And Their Attributes. | |

3.G.1 | Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories. |

4.G: Draw And Identify Lines And Angles, And Classify Shapes By Properties Of Their Lines And Angles. | |

4.G.1 | Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures. |

4.G.2 | Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles. |

4.G.3 | Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry. |

5.G: Classify Two-Dimensional Figures Into Categories Based On Their Properties. | |

5.G.3 | Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two- dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles. |

Graph Points On The Coordinate Plane To Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems. | |

5.G.1 | Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate). |

5.G.2 | Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation. |

6.G: Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems Involving Area, Surface Area, And Volume. | |

6.G.1 | Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

6.G.4 | Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. |

7.G: Solve Real-Life And Mathematical Problems Involving Angle Measure, Area, Surface Area, And Volume. | |

7.G.6 | Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. |

8.G: Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems Involving Volume Of Cylinders, Cones, And Spheres. | |

8.G.9 | Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. |

Understand Congruence And Similarity Using Physical Models, Trans- Parencies, Or Geometry Software. | |

8.G.5 | Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. |

## Interpreting Categorical And Quantitative Data | |

HSS.ID: Interpret Linear Models | |

HSS.ID.9 | Distinguish between correlation and causation. |

Summarize, Represent, And Interpret Data On A Single Count Or Measurement Variable | |

HSS.ID.2 | Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. |

HSS.ID.3 | Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). |

## Interpreting Functions | |

HSF.IF: Analyze Functions Using Different Representations | |

HSF.IF.7.a | Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. |

Interpret Functions That Arise In Applications In Terms Of The Context | |

HSF.IF.4 | For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.★ |

HSF.IF.5 | Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function.★ |

Understand The Concept Of A Function And Use Function Notation | |

HSF.IF.1 | Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). |

HSF.IF.2 | Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. |

## Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models | |

HSF.LE: Construct And Compare Linear, Quadratic, And Exponential Models And Solve Problems | |

HSF.LE.2 | Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). |

HSF.LE.3 | Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function. |

## Measurement And Data | |

2.MD: Measure And Estimate Lengths In Standard Units. | |

2.MD.3 | Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters. |

3.MD: Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Estimation Of Intervals Of Time, Liquid Volumes, And Masses Of Objects. | |

3.MD.1 | Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram. |

3.MD.2 | Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).6 Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.7 |

4.MD: Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Angle And Measure Angles. | |

4.MD.5.a | An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles. |

4.MD.5.b | An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees. |

4.MD.6 | Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. |

Solve Problems Involving Measurement And Conversion Of Measurements From A Larger Unit To A Smaller Unit. | |

4.MD.1 | Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two- column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ... |

4.MD.3 | Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor. |

5.MD: Convert Like Measurement Units Within A Given Measurement System. | |

5.MD.1 | Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems. |

Geometric Measurement: Understand Concepts Of Volume And Relate Volume To Multiplication And To Addition. | |

5.MD.5.a | Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. |

## Number And Operations In Base Ten | |

2.NBT: Understand Place Value. | |

2.NBT.1.b | The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones). |

2.NBT.3 | Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. |

2.NBT.4 | Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. |

Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Add And Subtract. | |

2.NBT.5 | Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. |

2.NBT.6 | Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. |

2.NBT.7 | Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three- digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds. |

2.NBT.9 | Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.3 |

3.NBT: Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform Multi-Digit Arithmetic.4 | |

3.NBT.1 | Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. |

3.NBT.2 | Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. |

3.NBT.3 | Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. |

5.NBT: Perform Operations With Multi-Digit Whole Numbers And With Decimals To Hundredths. | |

5.NBT.5 | Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. |

5.NBT.6 | Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. |

5.NBT.7 | Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. |

Understand The Place Value System. | |

5.NBT.3.b | Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. |

4.NBT: Generalize Place Value Understanding For Multi-Digit Whole Numbers. | |

4.NBT.1 | Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. |

4.NBT.2 | Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. |

4.NBT.3 | Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. |

Use Place Value Understanding And Properties Of Operations To Perform Multi-Digit Arithmetic. | |

4.NBT.4 | Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. |

4.NBT.5 | Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. |

4.NBT.6 | Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. |

## Number And Operations—Fractions | |

5.NF: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Multiplication And Division To Multiply And Divide Fractions. | |

5.NF.4 | Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. |

5.NF.5.a | Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. |

5.NF.5.b | Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1. |

5.NF.6 | Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. |

4.NF: Build Fractions From Unit Fractions By Applying And Extending Previous Understandings Of Operations On Whole Numbers. | |

4.NF.3.a | Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. |

4.NF.3.b | Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8. |

4.NF.3.c | Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. |

4.NF.3.d | Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. |

Extend Understanding Of Fraction Equivalence And Ordering. | |

4.NF.1 | Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. |

4.NF.2 | Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. |

3.NF: Develop Understanding Of Fractions As Numbers. | |

3.NF.2.a | Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line. |

3.NF.2.b | Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line. |

3.NF.3.a | Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. |

3.NF.3.b | Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3). Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. |

3.NF.3.c | Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram. |

3.NF.3.d | Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. |

## Operations And Algebraic Thinking | |

2.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Addition And Subtraction. | |

2.OA.1 | Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 |

Work With Equal Groups Of Objects To Gain Foundations For Multiplication. | |

2.OA.3 | Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends. |

3.OA: Represent And Solve Problems Involving Multiplication And Division. | |

3.OA.1 | Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 × 7. |

3.OA.2 | Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. |

3.OA.3 | Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.1 |

3.OA.4 | Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = � ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?. |

Solve Problems Involving The Four Operations, And Identify And Explain Patterns In Arithmetic. | |

3.OA.8 | Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.3 |

3.OA.9 | Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends. |

Understand Properties Of Multiplication And The Relationship Between Multiplication And Division. | |

3.OA.5 | Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.2 Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.) |

3.OA.6 | Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8. |

4.OA: Gain Familiarity With Factors And Multiples. | |

4.OA.4 | Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite. |

Generate And Analyze Patterns. | |

4.OA.5 | Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. |

Use The Four Operations With Whole Numbers To Solve Problems. | |

4.OA.1 | Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. |

4.OA.2 | Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.1 |

4.OA.3 | Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. |

5.OA: Analyze Patterns And Relationships. | |

5.OA.3 | Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so. |

Write And Interpret Numerical Expressions. | |

5.OA.1 | Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. |

5.OA.2 | Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18932 + 921) is three times as large as 18932 + 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. |

## Ratios And Proportional Relationships | |

6.RP: Understand Ratio Concepts And Use Ratio Reasoning To Solve Problems. | |

6.RP.2 | Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.”1 |

6.RP.3.c | Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent. |

7.RP: Analyze Proportional Relationships And Use Them To Solve Real-World And Mathematical Problems. | |

7.RP.1 | Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction 1/2/1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour. |

7.RP.2.a | Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. |

7.RP.2.c | Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn. |

7.RP.3 | Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error. |

## Reasoning With Equations And Inequalities | |

HSA.REI: Solve Equations And Inequalities In One Variable | |

HSA.REI.3 | Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. |

HSA.REI.4.a | Use the method of completing the square to transform any quadratic equation in x into an equation of the form (x – p)2 = q that has the same solutions. Derive the quadratic formula from this form. |

HSA.REI.4.b | Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b. |

Solve Systems Of Equations | |

HSA.REI.5 | Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. |

HSA.REI.6 | Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. |

HSA.REI.7 | Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. For example, find the points of intersection between the line y = –3x and the circle x2 + y2 = 3. |

## Seeing Structure In Expressions | |

HSA.SSE: Interpret The Structure Of Expressions | |

HSA.SSE.1.a | Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. |

HSA.SSE.1.b | Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. |

HSA.SSE.2 | Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 – y4 as (x2)2 – (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 – y2)(x2 + y2). |

Write Expressions In Equivalent Forms To Solve Problems | |

HSA.SSE.3.a | Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines. |

## Similarity, Right Triangles, And Trigonometry | |

HSG.SRT: Define Trigonometric Ratios And Solve Problems Involving Right Triangles | |

HSG.SRT.6 | Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles. |

HSG.SRT.7 | Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles. |

HSG.SRT.8 | Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.★ |

## Statistics And Probability | |

6.SP: Develop Understanding Of Statistical Variability. | |

6.SP.2 | Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. |

6.SP.3 | Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. |

Summarize And Describe Distributions. | |

6.SP.5.c | Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. |

7.SP: Draw Informal Comparative Inferences About Two Populations. | |

7.SP.3 | Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. |

Investigate Chance Processes And Develop, Use, And Evaluate Probability Models. | |

7.SP.5 | Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. |

7.SP.7.a | Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. |

7.SP.8.a | Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. |

7.SP.8.b | Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. |

## The Complex Number System | |

HSN.CN: Use Complex Numbers In Polynomial Identities And Equations. | |

HSN.CN.7 | Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions. |

## The Number System | |

6.NS: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Numbers To The System Of Rational Numbers. | |

6.NS.5 | Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. |

6.NS.6.a | Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite. |

6.NS.6.b | Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes. |

6.NS.6.c | Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane. |

6.NS.7.b | Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write –3 oC > –7 oC to express the fact that –3 oC is warmer than –7 oC. |

6.NS.8 | Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. |

Compute Fluently With Multi-Digit Numbers And Find Common Factors And Multiples. | |

6.NS.4 | Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2). |

7.NS: Apply And Extend Previous Understandings Of Operations With Fractions To Add, Subtract, Multiply, And Divide Rational Numbers. | |

7.NS.1.a | Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged. |

7.NS.1.b | Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts. |

7.NS.1.c | Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p – q = p + (–q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts. |

7.NS.2.a | Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)(–1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts. |

7.NS.2.c | Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers. |

7.NS.3 | Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. |

8.NS: Know That There Are Numbers That Are Not Rational, And Approximate Them By Rational Numbers. | |

8.NS.1 | Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number. |

## The Real Number System | |

HSN.RN: Extend The Properties Of Exponents To Rational Exponents. | |

HSN.RN.1 | Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5. |

HSN.RN.2 | Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. |

Use Properties Of Rational And Irrational Numbers. | |

HSN.RN.3 | Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. |

## Trigonometric Functions | |

HSF.TF: Extend The Domain Of Trigonometric Functions Using The Unit Circle | |

HSF.TF.3 | (+) Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for π/3, π/4 and π/6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for π–x, π+x, and 2π–x in terms of their values for x, where x is any real number. |

Prove And Apply Trigonometric Identities | |

HSF.TF.9 | (+) Prove the addition and subtraction formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems. |