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Right at the Source: Privacy Dark Patterns in User Interfaces 

by Johanna Gunawan, Privacy Summer Intern

Jill Bronfman | October 13, 2021

Dark patterns, according to Harry Brignull, are "tricks used in websites and apps that make you do things that you didn't mean to, like buying or signing up for something." Other researchers define them more loosely as designs that use behavioral knowledge against a user's best interests or that adversely impact their decisions.

An FTC workshop in early 2021 covered a vast range of important dark pattern topics, including why they might arise, what consequences they might have, and how they might impact teens and kids. A dark pattern is not necessarily intentional; in many cases, designers follow industry norms or make design decisions based on other priorities, without realizing potential adverse effects. If you've used the internet anytime recently, you've likely encountered a dark pattern and perhaps even recognized some -- researchers discovered at least one dark pattern in 95% of apps in an experiment, while others observed that people are often aware of how interfaces manipulate them but still succumb to the designs.

What Should You Know About Dark Patterns? 

Listing every possible dark pattern on the web or in apps would be an incredibly difficult task, and memorizing all of them in order to protect your digital experience is perhaps impossible. Researchers have begun to measure and categorize patterns, but capturing every possible example and enumerating them is challenging, considering the fast pace of technological changes across industries, as well as within one app. 

What's most important to know is that dark patterns use people's behavior against them. One way to think about this is to consider what's at risk if you fall susceptible to a specific design. Do you lose time, money, privacy, or something else? Do you end up providing more data than you normally would have, or do you end up paying more fees? Some dark patterns force your attention away from your current task and toward something the service wants you to look at or do. Other patterns attempt to get you to agree with or select an option that benefits the app creator, but can lead to the overcollection of your data, or perhaps add easy-to-miss items to your shopping cart. In the offline world, dark patterns can make it difficult for you to compare prices of items in a supermarket, leading you to select what seems like a deal but is actually more expensive.

We deal with behavioral tricks, called nudges, in both physical and digital spaces every day. Some of these can be helpful, like placing healthier food options at eye level on a supermarket shelf, or within easier reach than less healthful options. Nudges facilitate decision-making by reducing the effort or friction required to evaluate all possible options. Dark patterns can be seen as nudges in the "wrong" direction: away from your interests, and toward someone else's. Know that dark patterns can be found all around you, and that you've likely encountered some already. 

Why Do Dark Patterns Matter for Privacy, and Privacy Policies?

Our Privacy Evaluations help parents and educators better understand the risks of using a certain app or educational technology. We firmly believe that transparent policies, whether these disclose good or bad data practices, empower people and help them make better decisions about what products to use. 

Dark patterns can interfere with the promises set out in a privacy policy, potentially misrepresenting the controls or agency an app user may really have while interacting with the technology. In the wake of privacy regulations like Europe's GDPR, many vendors began to improve how they articulated their data practices and promises, but manipulative design can often circumvent these promises by making it more difficult to find privacy-forward features, or by over-encouraging behaviors in a service that erode privacy. When dark patterns are employed to push people toward accepting terms and conditions they don't read, or toward accepting all cookies over minimal cookies and other types of decisions that trap users into data collection, people lose the ability to make truly informed decisions. 

Such dark patterns reflect design strategies that compromise privacy, called "dark strategies" by some researchers. These strategies are the mechanisms by which dark patterns trick users, and they are often directly at odds with privacy-forward design strategies and the Privacy by Design principles outlined in the GDPR. For example, privacy dark patterns can employ strategies that encourage data maximization (like oversharing or overcollection), which counters the more protective data minimization principle. Other dark patterns like hidden legalese stipulations obscure information from people, rather than helping them learn about what's being done to their data or otherwise informing them.

Transparency is necessary for informed decision-making, which is why it's such an integral part of our evaluation process and question set. Dark patterns interfere with transparency at the user interaction level, which undermines vendors' efforts to improve their privacy policy disclosures, and ultimately disadvantages the kids and educators using these technologies. Even so, transparent policies do not guarantee that the app design itself is free from these manipulative tactics. We need both good policies and good practices.

What Can Individuals Do About Dark Patterns? 

Avoiding dark patterns as an average internet user can seem equally as impossible as regulating them. Recognition is one part of fighting back against dark patterns: When you're better able to recognize dark patterns and the mechanisms behind them, you're better able to make informed decisions for your internet use. Dark patterns are likely to be found in every type of interface, whether that be in a website, an app, a VR headset, or other smart devices. 

Learn More to Build Awareness

To start learning about dark patterns, you can visit the resources provided in this article, beginning with It can be useful to learn more about the evolution of dark patterns through concepts like nudges and manipulative design; resources come from fields like law, cognitive psychology, human-computer interaction/computer science, philosophy, and more. More immediately, concerned parents can and should sample their kids' technologies with an eye out for potential traps that are especially attractive to kids and teens; listening to the FTC panel on how dark patterns impact youth can be an excellent starting point for dark pattern awareness. For more examples of recent dark patterns, this Twitter account run by Harry Brignull frequently retweets examples found by other consumers and provides an up-to-date look at patterns you may have already encountered. 

Vendors can also benefit from these resources to help identify designs that unintentionally harm the user. Designers of apps and technologies can keep up to date with the evolving discourse in UX design and human-computer interaction by digging deeper into interaction design's potential pitfalls and considering how their work fits into value-sensitive or ethical design. 

Contribute to Dark Pattern Identification

Another way to contribute to a collective understanding of dark patterns is to report dark patterns you find in your daily life to the Dark Patterns Tip Line, run by Consumer Reports. Building a robust, real-world body of examples is integral to providing policymakers with the knowledge they need to understand dark patterns and draft appropriate regulations or set industry standards to reduce their presence and potential for harm in everyday technologies. 

Support Regulatory Efforts

Regulating design decisions is a daunting task, and often a contested one. In an environment where counting eyeballs serves as revenue, companies are incentivized to continue designing applications and services that increase user engagement, shopping, and monetization. Similarly, the same companies must continue innovating and pushing design boundaries -- so what can be done to ensure that businesses survive while refraining from burdening users? 

Researchers, lawmakers, nonprofits, and other advocacy groups are working on initiatives to help regulate dark patterns. The California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) was recently updated to include a provision that specifically prohibits dark patterns that include a user interface designed or manipulated with the substantial effect of subverting or impairing user autonomy, decision‐making, or choice. Other federal bills have been proposed to improve the current state of manipulative designs, like the SMART and DETOUR Acts. Some groups have submitted comments to the FTC specifically on the topic of children and dark patterns, including Common Sense Media's comments on the benefits of digital citizenship education to combat children's susceptibility to dark patterns. By learning more about dark patterns and letting your representatives and advocacy groups know that you're concerned about dark patterns, these efforts can continue to build momentum toward prohibiting the use of dark patterns that undermine our privacy and freedom of choice.